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Digital Divide

Group 7
by

Brittany Cassidy

on 2 December 2015

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Transcript of Digital Divide

Infancy
School Age
Professional
The Digital
DIv iDe

What IS
the digital divide?
The effects of the digital divide do not simply affect IT professionals. It is a much broader issue, affecting individuals worldwide at every stage of life.

Technology as Entertainment
• According to a recent study,
97 percent
of the families surveyed own a touch screen device (Smart phone, iPad, laptop, etc.) and the average age of a child starting to use a touch-screen device is
11 months.
• In another study, it was found that
20 percent
of children aged 0-2 have a television in their bedroom.
http://omgcutethings.com/

3.5 million
Indian babies are born prematurely every year, making up
18%
of the world's premature population.

• Created in 2008, the
Embrace Baby Warmer
uses simple medical technology to save premature and low birthweight babies.
Retirement
best practices
Professional Interviews
Contributing Factors
The digital divide continues to affect Michael and Mohammad as they begin school.
In India,
3.8%
of GDP goes toward educational expenditures.
In 2009,
97%
of classrooms had at least one computer with
93%
having access to the internet.
In 2014,

22%
of schools (not classrooms) had a computer, with only
12%
having access to the internet.
Even in the United States,
there is a digital divide between classrooms.
An Education Week article suggests 4 ways to bridge the gap in U.S. classrooms.
1. Bring your own device (BYOD)
2. Leasing Programs
3. Computer Labs
4. Teacher Training for
increased technology use
India, too, has its own
digital divide in the classroom.
Private schools are much more advanced in the technology sector.
In America,
5.2%
of U.S. GDP goes toward educational expenditures.
How is the education
system bridging the gap?
Higher Education
For those that continue their education past secondary school, a phenomenon called
“technological identity”
has been formed.
Technological Identity:
set of ideas and expectations about our own relationship with technology.
Meet Michael and Mohammed
How does the Digital Div ide affect them?
How can educators overcome the digital divide in the United States?
Michael's Struggle
with Technology
Mohammad's Struggle
with Technology
Every generation creates their own tools, which are eventually replaced by the next generation's innovated versions of such tools.
Just as technological innovation never comes to a halt, neither does the digital divide- and it is still observed as Michael and Mohammad reach retirement.
41%
of individuals over the age of 65 do not use the internet
23%
do not own a cell phone

Not aware they need such technology
Too stressful to learn how to use new technology
"A digital divide is an economic and social inequality with regard to
access
to,
use
of, or
impact
of information and communication technologies."
There is a digital divide between all nations, in every country, in every city, and even every family.
Demographics
Socioeconomic Status
Education Level
Age
A Global divide
Internet Penetration
The Indian government recognizes the growing need to implement technology into the classroom.
Every year, approximately 50,000 rupees are granted to every public school district to invest in educational technology.
Technology has made the developed world grow faster while leaving others behind, both in America and India.
Training
in the proper use of technology must occur at a young age.
In your own teaching experience, have you observed a digital divide among your students?
What are some challenges that you encounter when integrating technology in the classroom?
Personal life affected by constant connection to work
Heavy reliance on technology and the internet
Increased cybercrime
http://mashable.com/2013/07/09/fear-of-missing-out/#9QgOvojRdaqh
Photo by French photographer, Antoine Geiger, illustrating the phenomenon of excessive phone usage and how many are constantly "sucked in" by their phones.
Human interaction is critical at this age and should not be replaced with TVs and iPads.
Sharepoint Administrator at Barry-Wehmiller
BSIS from Webster University
Manages Sharepoint operations globally
Experience managing IT contractors in India

Mohammad's Technology
Michael's Technology
Technology as A LifeSaver
iPad
References
[1, 2, 12, 22]
The digital divide impacts every society in the world, and although there are many disadvantages to being constantly connected to the internet, the divide among communities is causing more harm than good.
In order to bridge the gap, we must focus on the key components:
access and training
Main Idea
[3, 7]
http://www.slate.com/content/dam/slate/blogs/the_eye/2013/10/23/131023_EYE_Embrace_6.jpg.CROP.original-original. jpg
[4, 5]
[4]
**indicates referred journal
Some researchers suggest that only about
10 percent
of the world is familiar with the Internet and what it can do.
[6, 11]
[8, 23, 27, 28]
[9]
(Y=2007, N=1051)
(Y=2014, N= 65)
[10]
Assistant Professor of Social Work
M.S.W., St. Louis University
B.S.W., UMSL
Co-founder of Center for Women and Children in India
Foster Parent to 7 children
How should children be educated?
" Children should have a mixed learning scheme, including hands-on activities, creative play, and technology."
What is a teacher's place in the digital divide?
"Teachers are the biggest influence in the intellectual development of children...
They have the biggest opportunity to introduce technology, and both teach and model how to use it properly."
In your experience, is there a distinct difference between American and Indian children in regard to the use of technology? How so?
"In America, the use of technology seems to impede the social skills of youth."
"In India, it is for the purpose of enhancing in-person communication."
Christina Blash
How would you change education in order to minimize the digital divide both in America and India?
In the United States, I would emphasize
social skills
in coordination with the use of technology.
In India, I would focus on
general English literacy skills
and introduce t
echnology to more rural areas
."
Main lesson learned from Christina Blash
United States:
86.9%
as of 2014
India:
28.3%
as of 2015
[13, 24]
[14]
N=43
79.07%
answered yes!
1. Time to teach technology distracts from teaching concepts
2. Students are distracted by technology
3. Funding for technology
4. Different student adoption/learning rates
With almost
30%
of the population in India being illiterate, Mohammad is less likely to be prepared for college.


"Yes!"
"In both the United States and in India, I would
introduce technology at an age where they can learn to use it responsibly."
Survey Results
(Listed in order of most challenging to least challenging)
Main Idea of Survey
Technology Overload?
The overall effects (negative or positive) that video games and touch screen devices have on children are still unknown.
But it is safe to say not all technological advancements have benefited society. For example:
Decreased physical activity
Decreased outdoor play time
Decreased social skills
Increased cyberbullying
Increased childhood obesity
Interview #1
Survey
Technology overload?
Bridging
the Gap
Offer alternatives to those struggling with technology
Enhance free access of educational resources
The dangers of technology reach their peak in a professional environment.
Every workplace will face its own challenges stemming from the digital divide, and every manager will have to make decisions regarding the best approach to bridging that gap.
Acknowledge constant change in the IT environment and stay up-to-date with all changes
Understand diversity in the workplace
Provide continuous
training
and IT
integration

Many college-aged students own cell phones and have a presence on social media.
Studies show that engaging in texting or social media posting during class is a direct cause of lower test scores.
Brian Barbagallo
Sashidhar Mamiduru
United States vs. India
However, it is important to consider the digital divide as more than a comparison of
ownership
.
technology Overload?
Scientists are still uncertain of the long term effects related to increased screen usage.
Technology Overload?
Computer literacy is no longer a skill "preferred" by employers.
As blue-collar positions decrease and technology-oriented positons are on the rise, all applicants are expected to be computer proficient, regardless of the type of position.
[26, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36]
22.5%
of Indians are employed in the IT career field
Median annual salary: 395,178 rupees
In US dollars, that is equivalent to approximately $5,900
12 hour work day
12.5%
of Americans are employed as an IT professional
Median annual salary: $72,027
8 hour work day
Michael's experience as an IT Professional in the U.S.
Mohammad's experience as an IT Professional in India
Project & People Manager at IBM
Bachelor Of Technology
Handling over 100 employees
Worked in India around 7 years and in US about 7 years
1. "Digital Divide | NTIA." Home Page | NTIA. Web. 1 Nov. 2015
2. "Can Miles Tackle the Digital Divide?" YouTube. E-Learning Foundation, 24 Sept. 2008. Web. 26 Oct. 2015.
3. "World Internet Users Statistics and 2015 World Population Stats." World Internet Users Statistics and 2015 World Population Stats. Web. 5 Nov. 2015.
4. Newman, Susan. "How Digital Devices Affect Infants and Toddlers." Psychology Today. Singletons, 31 July 2014. Web. 20 Oct. 2015.
**5. Vandewater, Elizabeth, Victoria Rideout, Ellen Wartella, Xuan Huang, June Lee, and Mi-suk Shim. "Digital Childhood: Electronic Media and Technology Use Among Infants, Toddlers, and Preschoolers." Pediatrics 119.5 (2007): Digital Childhood: Electronic Media and Technology Use Among Infants, Toddlers, and Preschoolers. American Academy of Pediatrics, May 2007. Web. 20 Oct. 2015.
**6. Salvador, Tony, and John Sherry. "TAKING THE INTERNET TO THE PEOPLE." IEEE Spectrum 42.10 (2005): 32-7. ProQuest.Web. 26 Oct. 2015.
**7. James, Jeffrey. "Reconstruing the Digital Divide from the Perspective of a Large, Poor, Developing Country." Journal of Information Technology 19.3 (2004): 172-7. ProQuest. Web. 26 Oct. 2015.
**8. Cohen, Aaron M. "Wiring the Elderly." The Futurist 44.2 (2010): 7-8. ProQuest. Web. 26 Oct. 2015.
9. Gupta, Anika. "How Technology Is Set to Transform India's Fragmented Education System." Computing. The Guardian, 7 May 2014. Web. 26 Oct. 2015.
10. Kannan, Shilpa. "The Low Cost Technology Saving Premature Babies' Lives - BBC News." BBC News: Business. BBC News, 26 Aug. 2013. Web. 20 Nov. 2015.
11. Hove, Emily. "The Global Digital Divide." Digitaldivide2012. 2 Mar. 2012. Web. 22 Nov. 2015.
**12. Preeti Dubey, JeevanJyoti, and Devanand. "A Study to Examine the Digital Divide Factors: Jammu and Kashmir Perspective." BVICAM's International Journal of Information Technology 3.2 (2011)Print.
13. "The World Factbook." Central Intelligence Agency. Central Intelligence Agency. Web. 17 Sept. 2015.
14. Harvey, Brison. "Bridging the Digital Divide in Classrooms." Education Week Teacher. 2 July 2014. Web. 8 Oct. 2015.
15. "Digest of Education Statistics." U.S. Department of Education. National Center for Education Statistics. Web. 26 Nov. 2015.
16. Gordon, Tia. "Bridging the First-Generation Student's Digital Divide." Ed Tech. 27 Oct 2014. Web. 4 Nov. 2015.
17. File, Thom and Ryan, Camille. "Computer and Internet Use in the United States: 2013." American Community Survey Reports, ACS-28, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington D.C., 2014. Web. 4 Nov. 2015.
18. Krishnakumar, Priya. "How Do Students Around the World Pay For College?" Tuitionio Student Loan Blog. 15 Aug. 2012. Web. 26 Nov. 2015.
19. Mathews, Eldho. "Who Gets Into India's IITs?" Inside Higher Ed, 14 Apr. 2015. Web. 26 Nov. 2015.
20. "University Grants Commission: Annual Report." University Grants Commission of India. Web. 4 Nov. 2015.
**21. Kuznekoff, Jeffrey and Titsworth, Scott. "The Impact of Mobile Phone Usage on Student Learning." Communication Education 62.3 (2013) Print.
**22. Van Dijk, Jan A. G. M. "Digital Divide Research, Achievements and Shortcomings." Poetics 34.4 (2006): 221-35. Print.
**23. Olphert, Wendy, and Leela Damodaran. "Older People and Digital Disengagement: A Fourth Digital Divide?" Gerontology 59.6 (2013): 564. Print.
**24. Intekhab, Alam. "Higher Education and Digital Divide in India." International Research : Journal of Library and Information Science 1.2 (2011)Print.
**25. Fletcher, Michael A. "THE DIGITAL DIVIDE." Hispanic Engineer and Information Technology Spring 2015: 20-1. ProQuest. Web. 29 Nov. 2015 .
**26. Pratt, Mary K. "THE Grill." Computerworld 47.4 (2013): 12-14. Academic Search Elite. Web. 29 Nov. 2015.
**27. Tsang, Monique. "Connecting and Caring: Innovations for Healthy Ageing." Bulletin of the World Health Organization 90.3 (2012): 162-63. Web.
28. Smith, Aaron. "Older Adults and Technology Use." Internet, Science, & Tech. Pew Research Center, 03 Apr. 2014. Web. 29 Oct. 2015.
*29. Blash, Christina. "Interview." Personal Interview. 25 Oct. 2015.
*30. Barbagallo, Brian. "Interview." Personal Interview. 15 Oct 2015.
*31. Mamiduru, Sashidhar. "Interview." Personal Interview. 26 Oct 2015.
32. Prachi Slave. "Why Is India Producing Unemployable Engineers?" Youth Ki Awaaz. August 2015. Web. 15 Nov 2015.
33. Kumar. "Work Culture, Ethics, Time at work, Importance – India vs. America" RedBus2us. 2014. Web. 16 Nov 2015.
34. "Entry-Level Software Engineer / Developer / Programmer Salary (India)." Payscale. 2014. Web. 16 Nov 2015.
35. "Entry-Level Software Engineer / Developer / Programmer Salary (United States)." Payscale. 2014. Web 16 Nov 2015.
36 "The STEM Workforce: An Occupational Overview." Department for Professional Employees. AFL-CIO, 01 Mar. 2014. Web. 01 Nov. 2015.
Why not?
New innovations in assistive technology are creating monumental opportunities for at-home elderly care, improving security, safety and autonomy for senior citizens.
Majority of the elderly Indian population is not utilizing the benefits of technology.
70% of the Indian elderly population lives in poor, rural areas. Even if this population wanted to use technology, they generally would not have access.
Like the elderly population in the United States, the Indian elderly population could also benefit from technological advances to supplement healthcare and independent living.
Why not?
How can a manager bridge the gap?
[16]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_divide viewed Nov. 29, 2015.
With less than
1%
of the United States population being illiterate, Michael's chances of making it to college are high.

Mohammad's Collegiate Experience
Michael's Collegiate Experience
Average annual cost of public institution:
$6,122
Average annual cost of private institution:
$29,648
24% of students are both first generation and low-income students.

African Americans and Hispanics are least likely to use the internet.
[13, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20]
Average annual cost of tuition at Indian Institute of Technology:
$1,500

76% of students are from urban areas
92% of students are male
Only 2.6% had illiterate parents
[21]
[29]
Constant change in the IT environment emphasizes the importance of training and access.
*indicates personal interview
[30, 31]
Full transcript