Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Cholera

No description
by

Brendan Dougherty

on 16 November 2013

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Cholera

Strain: O1 (cause of most cases) & O139 (confined to Southeast Asia) Other strains are not epidemic

Fecal-oral transmission

Pathogenesis
Bacteria colonize and attach to small intestine
Cholera toxin secreted after colonization
Toxin stimulates chloride secretion and decreases sodium absorption - this leads to massive fluid and electrolytes loss
Background
References
Beau, D. R. V. E., Tipret, J., Patrick, M., Jacobson, L., Barbour, K. E., Berendes, D., Bensyl, D., ... Handzel, T. (January 01, 2011). Knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to treatment and prevention of cholera, Haiti, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17, 11, 2158-61.
Butterton, J. R., Calderwood, S. B., & Baron, E. L. (2013, february 2013). Pathogenesis of Vibrio cholearae infection Retrieved March 18, 2013, from http://www.uptodate.com/contents/pathogenesis-of-vibrio-cholerae-infection#H1
Durrheim, D. (January 01, 2004). Prevention of cholera. Lancet, 363, 9412, 897-8.
Jeuland, M., & Whittington, D. (January 01, 2009). Cost-benefit comparisons of investments in improved water supply and cholera vaccination programs. Vaccine, 27,23, 3109-20.
Mahamud, A. S., Ahmed, J. A., Nyoka, R., Auko, E., Kahi, V., Ndirangu, J., Nguhi, M., Burton, J. W., Muhindo, B. Z., Breiman, R. F., & Eidex, R. B. (2012). Epidemic cholera in Kakuma Refugee Camp, Kenya, 2009: the importance of sanitation and soap. Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, 6(3), 234-241.
Organization, W. H. (2012, July 2012). Cholera. Fact sheet Retrieved March 18, 2013, from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs107/en/index.html
POLLITZER, R. (January 01, 1957). Cholera studies. II. Prevention and control. Bulletin of the World --Health Organization, 17, 1, 67-162.
Rosewell, A., Addy, B., Komnapi, L., Makanda, F., Ropa, B., Posanai, E., Dutta, S., Mola, G., Man, W. N., Zwi, A., & MacIntyre, C. R. (2012). Cholera risk factors, Papua New Guinea, 2010. BMC Infectious Diseases, 12(1), 287.
Sack, D. A., Sack, R. B., Nair, G. B., & Siddique, A. K. (January 01, 2004). Cholera.Lancet, 363, 9404, 223-33.
Temperature
pH
Salinity
Rainfall
V.Cholerae attach to exoskeleton and gut of crustacean plankton (mainly copepods)
Often symbiotic or commensal
Vibrio cholerae
Temperature
Rainfall
Environmental Factors Affecting Transmission
Salinity
pH
Plankton Biomass
Environment and transmission:
social aspects
Developing countries:
water sanitation, sewage
-biosand filters for pumps
-soap, antibacterial
Examples:
-Health facilities without proper infection control
-Proximity to contaminated water
-Travel, Trade, Population displacement
-Population density
-Funerals
Developed/developing countries
-cook food (esp. seafood) (and treat water used in cooking)
Summary
History
1- Cholera is one of the oldest disease studied

2- 75% of infected people are asymptomatic carriers

3- Cholera causes severe dehydration due to diarrhea

4- Cholera transmission controlled by water conditions (pH, temperature, salinity...) and social factors (hygiene, sewage treatment, food preparation...)
Background

Symptoms:
Acute watery diarrhea
Vomiting
A
dult and children are both susceptible, however mortality rates are mostly children
7
5% do not develop symptoms but are carriers that can spread the disease
After 3-4 hours of symptoms - become severely dehydrated
Can die within 24 hours if no treatment

Treatment
Oral re-hydration and IV fluids
Antibiotics can be prescribed to decrease diarrhea
Must regain electrolytes
Cholera
Group 12
The setting...
You are a great detective, living in London England
The year is 1854, and you are investigating the curious case of an outbreak of vomiting and diarrhea. Ask questions to the people of London (age, occupation, food source, water source) to determine the cause of the illness.
W/out Copepods
With copepods
Bacterial attachment to Copepods increases with increased temperature (Highest at 30 degrees C)
relationship
Copepod attachment
Full transcript