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Transcript of Cholera
Bacteria colonize and attach to small intestine
Cholera toxin secreted after colonization
Toxin stimulates chloride secretion and decreases sodium absorption - this leads to massive fluid and electrolytes loss
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V.Cholerae attach to exoskeleton and gut of crustacean plankton (mainly copepods)
Often symbiotic or commensal
Environmental Factors Affecting Transmission
Environment and transmission:
water sanitation, sewage
-biosand filters for pumps
-Health facilities without proper infection control
-Proximity to contaminated water
-Travel, Trade, Population displacement
-cook food (esp. seafood) (and treat water used in cooking)
1- Cholera is one of the oldest disease studied
2- 75% of infected people are asymptomatic carriers
3- Cholera causes severe dehydration due to diarrhea
4- Cholera transmission controlled by water conditions (pH, temperature, salinity...) and social factors (hygiene, sewage treatment, food preparation...)
Acute watery diarrhea
dult and children are both susceptible, however mortality rates are mostly children
5% do not develop symptoms but are carriers that can spread the disease
After 3-4 hours of symptoms - become severely dehydrated
Can die within 24 hours if no treatment
Oral re-hydration and IV fluids
Antibiotics can be prescribed to decrease diarrhea
Must regain electrolytes
You are a great detective, living in London England
The year is 1854, and you are investigating the curious case of an outbreak of vomiting and diarrhea. Ask questions to the people of London (age, occupation, food source, water source) to determine the cause of the illness.
Bacterial attachment to Copepods increases with increased temperature (Highest at 30 degrees C)