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Genetic Modification (MSA presentation)

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Tabea Cox

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Transcript of Genetic Modification (MSA presentation)

Past uses of genetic modification in humans
What is genetic engineering?
the modification of the characters of an organism by the manipulation of genetic material
The two types of Genetic modification
The Human Genome Project
Pros and Cons:
Genetic engineering

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SOURCES
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(Uni of Missouri,2016, accessed 27.12.2015 12:30 PM)
http://www.mengele.dk/
(Louis Bülow,2013-15, accessed 14.2.2016 9:01 AM)
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(Online Etymology Dictionary, 2001-16, accessed 15.2.2016 16:25 PM)
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Table of Contents
A step towards the future
or
a risk to our society?
Sources
Intro
What is genetic engineering?
Present + Past uses of genetic modification
Process of genetic engineering
Genetic modification to The Human Genome Project (Timeline)
The two types of genetic engineering
Ethical risks (future and today)
Traditional breeding vs. genetic engineering (Nature vs. Nurture)
Conclusion
Founder: Craig Venter (1984)
US Energy Ministry + National Institute of health
Plan to modify the human genomes DNA-Sequence
2005: 3 Million dollars funded project
1865
Gregor Mendel displays research in plant hybridisation
1952
Rosalind Franklin creates
"Photograph 51"

Shows pattern to indicate helical shape of human DNA
1953
James Watson + Frances Crick discover double helix
structure of human DNA
Structure and parts of the human helical genome
James Watson and Frances Crick discussing new ideas
Portrait of Gregor Mendel
Different types of flower hybrids
Quote by Rosalind Franklin on her views on gene modification (1946)
helical shape of human DNA
Pros/Cons
Different to cloning or breeding
Unique set of genes created
Universal genetic code (A,T,C,G)
New=dangerous?
Uses of genetic modification
Medicine
mass- produce insulin, human growth hormones, follistim
Agriculture
genetically modified crops/
organisms
Research
discovering the function of certain genes
Industry
transforming microorganisms/mass producing protein
1983
First genetic disease mapped Huntingtons

Invention of "polymerase chain" reaction (PCR)
Somatic
Germline
1989
Cystic Fibrosis (mutation) identified

Symptoms:
Damage to respiratory system
chronic digestive system

1990
First evidence of BRCA1 gene provided

Begin of Human Genome Project
Research centers applied project internationally "HUGO" created
Currently: ideas (plants and animals)
Problem: Size of human genome
Proof to create unidentified gene sequences
1998
The "Celera Genomics Corporation" founded to sequence the human genome
1999
"Chromosome 22" decoded as first human chromosome
2001
2002
First draft of human genome is released
Mouse becomes first mammalian research organism with decoded genome

The Human Genome Project is completed
History of gene modification to the Human Genome Project
Data
Images
http://humangenomeproject.yolasite.com/resources/HGPlogosm.jpg
(accessed 2.3.2016 18:25 PM)
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/22/Da_Vinci_Vitruve_Luc_Viatour.jpg/300px-Da_Vinci_Vitruve_Luc_Viatour.jpg
(accessed 4.3.2016 15:03 PM)
http://a4.files.biography.com/image/upload/c_fit,cs_srgb,dpr_1.0,h_1200,q_80,w_1200/MTIwNjA4NjMzNTA5MDg2NzMy.jpg
(accessed 4.3.2016 15:11 PM)
http://plantbreeding.coe.uga.edu/images/9/99/4_4.jpgV
(accessed 4.3.2016 15:17 PM)
http://site.hmc.org.qa/heartviews/vol10no2/images/Image/100.jpg gdocgds
(accessed 11.03.2016 16:20)
http://www.scienceclarified.com/photos/genetic-engineering-2824.jpg

(accessed 10.03.2016, 16:45)
http://www.newportnaturalhealth.com/wp-content/uploads/071023-gmo-apple.jpg
(accessed 10.03.2016, 16:32)
http://www.scienceclarified.com/Ga-He/Genetic-Engineering.html (
accessed 20.03.2016, 12:06 PM)
https://media.licdn.com/mpr/mpr/shrinknp_200_200/p/4/000/1bc/213/3518eee.jpg
(accessed 25.03.2016, 19:39 PM)
http://www.vf-holtzbrinck.de/typo3temp/_processed_/csm_ZEIT_Forum_c_Finja_Nissen_9_dbc839c7df.jpg
(accessed 25.03.2016, 19:40 PM)
https://idw-online.de/de/newsimage?id=196830&size=thumbnail
(accessed 25.03.2016, 19:42 PM)
http://www.ethikrat.org/dateien/bilder/expertengespraech-7-4-2011/peter-dabrock
(accessed 25.03.2016, 19:43 PM)
http://www.utamariakuder.de/image/bildergalerie/cdu_bild_120_810.jpg
(accessed 25.03.2016,19:44 PM)
http://static2.wn.de/var/storage/images/wn/startseite/muenster/2219752-care-institut-gruene-kritik-an-care-in-bayern/66315560-1-ger-DE/Care-Institut-Gruene-Kritik-an-Care-in-Bayern_image_630_420f_wn.jpg
(accessed 25.03.2016, 19:45 PM)
http://befruitfulsaga.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/07/scan0004.jpg
(accessed 26.03.2016, 22:28 PM)
TIMELINE:
The effects of Huntingtons inside the brain
Physical effects of Huntingtons
Structure of the Polymerase Chain reaction
X-ray of lung with cystic fibrosis vs. healthy opponent
Josef Mengele
"The Angel of Death"
(Hitler and the Nazis)
a visual representation of genetic engineering
Posted to Auschwitz (1943) to conduct genetic research on human subjects
Work revolved genetic engineering by eradication of inferior genes from human population "German super-race."
Believed twins held "possibilities" 1500 paired to Mengele in selection process
chemical eye-injection, blood transfusion, dissections, "conjoined twins" no anesthetic

A genetically modified apple compared
to organic apples
Traditional breeding vs. genetic engineering
Nurture
Nature
The twins from "the shining"
Portrait of Josef Mengele
Chromosome 17 on the BRCA1 gene
representation of the human genome composed out of cells
Logo of the celera foundation
Coding of the human genome in large scale configuration
a representation of Chromosome 22
Cover of the human genome represented by the faces of the people involved
A mouse with a "cell" tail
Craig Venter and former US president discuss the human genome project
Risks
Social
Economical
"PESTEL"
Political
Technological
Environmental
Legal
Homogenous society lacking diversity
Prejudice (Genetically modified individuals experience larger amount of privileges) "Gattaca"
How would it work? Who has control over this?
Blending of animal and human DNA results in chimeric entities. Should these entities be given rights and special protections?
Data
Images
Data
Images
http://www.geogene.com/genetic-eng-basics.html
(Geogene,2011, accessed 06.03.2016, 17:27 PM)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BK12dQq4sJ (
Anne Johnson, 2014, accessed 12.03.2016, 16:43 PM)
http://agbiosafety.unl.edu/basic_genetics.shtml
(Uni of Nebraska, 2005, accessed 12.03.2016, 17:15 PM)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/aqa/geneticvariation/reproductionrev5.shtml
(BBC, 2014, accessed 12.03.2016, 17:32 PM)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/standard/biology/biotechnology/reprogramming_microbes/revision/2/
(BBC, 2014, accessed 13.03.2016, 13:43 PM)
http://grist.org/food/genetic-engineering-vs-natural-breeding-whats-the-difference/
(Nathanael Johnson, 2013, accessed 17.3.2016 23:30)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/guides/zmqxvcw/revision/1
(BBC, 2016, accessed 18.03.2016, 9:20 AM)
http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/guides/zmqxvcw/revision/8
(BBC, 2016, accessed 18.03.2016, 9:27 AM)
http://www.councilforresponsiblegenetics.org/pageDocuments/YN3RBRQ4GO.pdf
(CRG, 2015, accessed 18.03.2016, 9:30 PM)
http://www.english.umd.edu/interpolations/2604
(Uni of Maryland, 2011, accessed 18.03.016, 13:14 PM)
http://www.disabled-world.com/artman/publish/genetic-engineering.shtml
(Ian Langtree, 2005, accessed 19.03.2016, 21:25 PM)
http://www.majordifferences.com/2013/10/somatic-therapy-vs-and-germline-therapy.html#.Vu6x68vAZdg
(Major Differences, 2015, accessed 20.03.2016, 15:30 PM)
http://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/biocoach/dnarep/basepair.html
(Pearson, 2005, accessed 27.03.2016, 23:25 PM)
Process of Genetic engineering
Pros
Cons
Ysanne Cremer 10D and Tabea Cox 10C
Conclusion
The eco system doesn't care about success
Environment alters genes
Increases human suffering
decreases animal well fare
Leads to ecological disasters
Imbalance in ecology of regions with exotic species
The process outlawed due to unreliable dangers (Blade Runner)
Companies are unsupervised
Genetic modification legalized too early (poses threat)
Court exploits genetically modified individuals (less rights in society)
Present uses of genetic modification in humans
Somatic Engineering
vs
Germline Engineering
Introduction
Fear of "biological weapons" being created by terrorists
Possibility of large-scale eugenic
programs
Totalitarian control over human
life

No full understanding of human genome

no full understanding of the technology
DNA being injected into a mouse embryo
a basic outline of genetic engineering in plants

Works by physical removal of a gene from one organism insertion into another organism
Restriction enzyme used to cut DNA
Ligase enzyme used to "glue" pieces of DNA
"Complementary base- pairing"
Especially Germline Technology is not 100% safe
risk of harming patients
Genes introduced into somatic cells
Only individual affected
Possible
Few ethical issues
Genes introduced into germline cells
Offspring affected
Technical difficulties
Many ethical issues
Teratogenic consequences
http://www.english.umd.edu/interpolations/2604
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http://www.disabled-world.com/artman/publish/genetic-engineering.shtml
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http://www.majordifferences.com/2013/10/somatic-therapy-vs-and-germline-therapy.html#.Vu6x68vAZdg
(Major Differences, 2015, accessed 20.03.2016, 15:30 PM)
https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/glossary=somaticcell
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http://www.yourgenome.org/debates/is-germline-gene-therapy-ethical
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http://www.ratical.org/co-globalize/PoGEH.html
(Richard Hayes, 2000, accessed 21.03.2016 13:58 PM)
https://archiv.handelsblatt.com/dosearch?explicitSearch=true&q=genome+editing&timeFilterType=selected&timeFilter=NONE&ticket=ST-15143-jeTQYmJsrBfarRWyhT9T-ap1
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http://www.allaboutpopularissues.org/genetic-engineering-in-humans-faq.htm
(All About, 2015, accessed 21.03.2016 16:23)
http://www.bu.edu/wcp/Papers/Bioe/BioeHay2.htm
(Matti Häyry & Tuija Lehto, 2005, accessed 20.03.2016, 22:43 PM)
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/2010-to-2015-government-policy-food-and-farming-industry/2010-to-2015-government-policy-food-and-farming-industry
(Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs, Natural England and Rural Payments Agency, 2013, accessed 23.03.2016)
http://www.wilderdom.com/personality/L4-1IntelligenceNatureVsNurture.html
(Wilderdom, 2005, accessed 23.03.2016 13:19)
http://www.brighthub.com/science/genetics/articles/22210.aspx
(Paul Arnold, 2012, accessed 23.03.2016 13:56 PM)
http://www.conserve-energy-future.com/pros-and-cons-of-genetic-engineering.php
(Rinkesh, 2009, accessed 23.03.2016 14:09 PM)

http://occupytheory.org/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-genetic-engineering/
(OccupyTheory, 2014, accessed 23.03.2016, 10:11 AM)

http://welearntoday.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/four_generations_hands.jpg
(accessed 20.03.2016 , 19:46 PM)
http://sphweb.bumc.bu.edu/otlt/MPH-Modules/PH/GMOs/agrogeneng.gif
(accessed 20.03.2016, 11:33 PM)
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(accessed 21.03.2016 16:34 PM)
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(accessed 21.03.2016, 19:38 PM)
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(accessed 21.03.2016, 19:41 PM)
http://www.preda.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/dictatorship.jpg (
accessed 21.03.2016, 19:45 PM)
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https://spollack.files.wordpress.com/2009/07/geneticengineering.gif?w=595

(accessed 22.03.2016 14:50 PM)
http://www.genewatch.org/uploads/865d357353e86dfc74ba59e18bffed98/k9197_1__214x320_.jpg
(accessed 23.03.2016 13:20 PM)
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(accessed 23.03.2016 13:28 PM)
http://www.greenpeace.org/eastasia/Global/eastasia/photos/food-agriculture/ge-other/ge-contamination-field.jpg
(accessed 23.03.2016 13:35 PM)
http://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/biocoach/dnarep/images/dnaribns.gif
(accessed 15.03.2016, 12:33 PM)
involves many steps and is far more complicated than more traditional uses of medicine
Gene:
Commercialisation of Genetic engineering
economic interest of research groups/ industrial corporations
Intensified economic inequality
large divide between rich and poor
(Genetic engineering is very expensive- is it really the best cause for our money?)
Cheap genetic engineering damage to low-income countries
"Genetic happiness" depending on experience
"The great genetic lottery"
Not due to educational attainment
Dangerous components affect genes
The Human Genome Project
How far is too far?
The Natural state of an embryo (without genetic modification)
"Nature shapes the way you are" (-Leon Golliger)
The human genome projects logo
"The Vitruvian Man" by Leonardo Da Vinci in main representation of HUGO
Nature vs. Nature in gene manipulation
Applications in research centers, universities and hospitals
biotechnology
cloning in animals and plants
Plant sapling cloning
Portrait of Dolly the sheep- The first cloned mammal (1996)
Foresight UK
Foresight UK
Genetic engineering= same as genetic modification
removes DNA from one organism and transfers genes
Artificial insertion of gene
Traditional breeding =the crossing and selecting of superior genotype combination
Does not involve artificial gene manipulation
Unit dedicated to foresight in the british government
Provided very good insight into genetic modification
First developed "GM" crops
GM crops: under development
Genetically modified maize plants
Detailed drawing of relationship between nature and nurture
Greenpeace activists in a maize field
Pencil "rubbing gene away"-symbolizing the loss of traditional society
A legal issue being discussed
With genetic engineering, we will be able to increase the complexity of our DNA, and improve the human race. But it will be a slow process, because one will have to wait about 18 years to see the effect of changes to the genetic code.
–Stephen Hawking (2001)
Picture of Stephen Hawking
Making genetic diseases and mutations "a thing of the past"
Extending lifespans of crops, humans and other animals
Producing better pharmaceuticals
Producing "new foods" that will be better for our health and the environment
different species can be combined
Picture of crying baby
“Human-germline editing for the purposes of creating genome-modified humans should not proceed at this time, partly because of the unknown social consequences, but also because the technology and our knowledge of the human genome are simply not ready to do so safely.”

-Jennifer Doudna, Researcher at the University of California, Berkeley (2015)
Dr. Jennifer Doudna
Visualized as "step towards the future"
Great potential behind the idea
Improve mankind as a whole
Will eliminate genetic diseases and mutations
"Erase" genetically transmitted cancers

On the other hand....
Could lead to corrupt and less diverse society
More benefit for the wealthy
Favouritism to GM individuals
People being judged on the parameters set in genes
Problem: "Vast" and "Complex" human genome
Mutations may occur
Less diversity
Many ethical issues/risks
Unknown consequences
(very uncertain)
Currently quite expensive
Unsafe
Overpopulation
http://pnimg.net/w/articles/4/502/50dcee3235.jpg
(accessed 24.03.2016 16:46 PM)
https://nakularora.files.wordpress.com/2014/09/1287713014.jpg
(accessed 25.03.2016, 13:34 PM)
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(accessed 25.03.2016, 14:44 PM)
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(accessed 24.03.2016, 13:22 PM)
https://i.ytimg.com/vi/sO_uuMp6wDk/maxresdefault.jpg
(accessed 15.03.2016, 17:22 PM)
Bibliography
"Revised and Updated Illustrated Oxford Dictionary", Great Britain: Dorling Kindersly Limited and Oxford University Press, 1998, Print. (
used 06. 03.2016, 16:50 PM)
"The Century of the Gene", Evelyn Fox Keller, 2000, Harvard, University Press, Cambridge/Massachusetts and London
(used 2o.02.2016, 12:35 PM)
"Das Molekül des Lebens", Claudia Eberhard- Metzger, 1999, Deutscher TaschenbucH Verlag, München, Deutschland
(used 20.02.016 (used 20.02.2016, 13:35 PM)
"Die Genomfalle- die Versprechung der Gentechnik, ihre Nebenwirkungen und Folgen", Ursel Fuchs, 2000, Patmos Verlag, Düsseldorf, Deutschland
(used 20.02.2016, 15:00 PM)
"Dealing with Genes", Paul Berg & Maxine Singer, 1992, University Science Books, Oxford, Great Britain
(used 22.02.2016, 17:34 PM)
"Das menschliche Genom" ,T. Strachan -1992, BIOS Scientific Publishers Limited
(used 02.03.2o16 12:00 PM)
"Humangenetik" ,Buselmaier Tariverdian -1999, Springer-Verlag ,Berlin, Heidelberg
(used 03.02.2016)
according to Dictionary.com
Thank you for your attention
Other Sources
Interview with Futurist
Dr. Ingo Rollwagen
Interview with Prof. Dr. Leon Evan Goliger (ex-Professor at New York State University)
Prof. Dr. Jens Boch (Institut für Pflanzengenetik an der Leibniz Universität Hannover)
Seminar ZEIT FORUM WISSENSCHAFT | "Wunderpflanzen, Designerbabys: Die Neugeburt der Gentechnik - unerreicht präzise, unerreicht sicher? " (02.03.2016 19:00 Uhr )
Prof. Dr. Peter Dabrock
(Lehrstuhl für Systematische Theologie (Ethik) an der Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg und stv. Vorsitzender des Deutschen Ethikrates)
Prof. Dr. Bärbel Friedrich
(Vizepräsidentin, Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher Leopoldina e.V. und Mitglied der Berlin-Brandenburgischen Akademie der Wissenschaften)
Prof. Dr. Hans R. Schöler
(geschäftsführender Direktor, Max-Planck-Institut für molekulare Biomedizin und Mitglied der Berlin-Brandenburgischen Akademie der Wissenschaften)
The Follistim pen is used to treat infertility
much work and research still to be done
Gene modification in Humans
"Designer Babies"
Idea: Add new genetic "traits" to future generations
Change the way we evolve
Relatively new technology
"Currently it is still to unsafe, uncertain, and thus poses a risk. Now is the time to fully discuss and explore this field so that one day genetic engineering can be used safely."
Diagram showing the different between germline and somatic cells
"Gattaca", directed by Andrew Niccol
"Blade Runner", directed by Ridley Scott
Complementary base-pairing
Full transcript