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Transcript of Science Fair
John Roberts This subject was selected by the instructor. PURPOSE To find out how permanent are permanent markers.
To find out which solvents will remove the ink the best.
To reduce cost by cleaning stained objects instead of discarding them. HYPOTHESIS If I use water, vinegar or dishwashing liquid, then the ink will not be removed.
If I use alcohol. bleach or fingernail polish remover, then the ind will be removed. BACKGROUND RESEARCH http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Permanent_marker.html
A permanent marker or indelible marker is a type of marker pen that is used to create permanent writing on an object. It is capable of writing on a variety of substances from paper to metal to stone. Permanent market is another name for "waterproof" marker. The permanent marker was invented in 1952 by Sidney Rosenthal.
I learned who invented the permanent marker.
I learned when the permanent marker was invented. BACKGROUND RESEARCH CON'T Devlin/Emily."Why Are Permanent Markers Permanent?.
While the definition of a permanent marker seems oblivious, it actually is not. Technically, a permanent marker need only meet two qualifications to be considered permanent: it must use dyes or pigments, and it must adhere to most surfaces and/or be water resistant.
While removal of permanent marker sounds like an oxymoron, there are effective ways to remove ink from permanent markers. Alcohol will remove permanent markers more effective from nonporous materials, but it will work with porous materials as well. Many household items, such as deodorant or hairspray, contain alcohol, and could be used effectively. Baking soda is another popular permanent marker remover.
I learned the two requirements for a marker to be considered permanent.
I learned some items that will remove permanent markers. BACKGROUND RESEARCH CON'T Diamond/Dora."Permanent Marker Ingredients"Handling Precautions.www.ehow.com/list_67021233_permanent-marker-ingredients.4:07p.m.11/16/2012
Be sure to read packaging for products; some carry warnings against breathing fumes from permanent markers. Storage precautions include refraining from shaking permanent markers and keeping the caps on when not in use. Permanent markers should be disposed of as solid waste and in accordance with federal, state and local regulations. They should not be burned because hazardous products will form, including carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides, amines and oxides of nitrogen.
I learned that permanent markers are dangerous.
I learned how to dispose of permanent markers properly. BACKGROUND RESEARCH CON'T BACKGROUND RESEARCH CON'T Pasquesi/Andy."What Does A Permanent Marker Consist Of?"www.ehow.com/about_5070622_contained-permanent-markers.html.4:16p.m.11/16/2012
Permanent marker ink is composed of three elements: a colorant, a solvent and a resin.
The colorant is a pigment or dye that gives ink its color.
The solvent is really the key to permanent markers; without this liquid carrier to dissolve and transport ink colorant and ink resin through the sponge via siphoning, markers would not work.
A glue-like polymer, ink resin ensures that ink colorant "sticks" to paper once the solvent evaporates. It ink were just colorant and solvent, the colorant would turn to dust and fall off the paper as soon as the solvent dried or evaporated.
I learned the ingredients for permanent markers.
I learned the definition of the ingredients. Sorrels/Melynda."How to Remove Permanent Marker From Clothes".www.ehow.com/how_4793794_remove-permanent-marker-clothes.3:55pm.11/16/2012
1. Apply nail polish remover to the stain and blot with a clean paper towel until the stain goes away.
2. Wash the garment in the washing machine with a cup of salt using cold water and no detergent.
3. Place a paper towel under the garment. Spray the stain with hairspray and rub with a cotton swab. The paper towel will help to absorb the stain and prevent it from staining the other side.
4. Apply WD-40 to the stain and blot with a clean paper towel until the stain goes away.
5. Soak the stained area in vinegar for at least an hour and run it through the washing machine.
6. Mix cream of tartar and lemon juice into a paste and apply it to the stain. Allow this to sit for about an hour before running the garment through the washing machine.
7. Scrub the stain with toothpaste and a paper towel. Make sure it is the paste kind; gel will not work.
I learned items that will help to remove permanent ink from clothing.
I learned items that I should not use to try to remove ink from clothing. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN MATERIALS: Constant: amount of ink on each piece of fabric
Dependent: ink removed
Independent Variables: Water, Alcohol, Apple Cider Vinegar, Dishwashing Liquid, Detergent Solution, Bleach Solution, Length of time fabric soaked in solution 1/2 cup water
1/2 cup rubbing alcohol
1/2 cup vinegar
Detergent Solution: 1/2 cup water + 1/2 tsp laundry detergent
Dish Liquid Solution: 1/2 cup water + 1/2 tsp dish liquid
Clorox bleach solution: 1/2 cup water + 1/2 tsp bleach
Black Permanent Marker
White Fabric: 3 x 3 inches
Measuring Cups and Spoons
Timer PROCEDURE: 1. Measure 1/2 cup of each solvent.
2. Place each one in a separate cup.
3. Take a 3x3 in square of fabric and draw a X on each one.
4. Place a square fabric in each cup.
5. Leave it in the cup for 5 minutes.
6. Take out and check for any changes.
7. Write down observations.
8. Place each fabric back in solvent.
9. Scrub each piece of fabric for 1 minute while in the solution.
10. Take each piece out and record your results.
11. Wait 5 more minutes.
12. Record any changes. DATA ANALYSIS Solvent Appearance Appearance Appearance Appearance
after 5 min. scrubbing after 10 min scrubbing+10 min
Water No Change No Change No Change No Change
Alcohol Ink Dripped Ink 1/2 gone Ink Dripping Ink 3/4 gone
Vinegar No Change Ink Bleeds No Change Ink 1/4 gone
Dish Liq. No Change Ink 1/2 gone No Change Ink 1/2 gone
Laundry No Change Lightened No Change Bleed a
Solution a little little
Bleach Lightened Lightened No Change Ink 1/4 gone
a little a little RESULTS CONCLUSION 1. The water removed no ink.
2. Alcohol removed some of the ink but not all of it.
3. Alcohol removed the most ink.
4. Apple Cider Vinegar made the ink move 1/8 inch.
5. Half of the ink came out using the dish solution.
6. With scrubbing, dish liquid removed the most ink.
7. The laundry detergent solution made the ink bleed a
little with scrubbing.
8. Bleach solution made the ink fade a little bit.
9. More ink comes off by scrubbing than just making the
fabric sit in the solution. CONCLUSION CON'T I was investigating how permanent are permanent markers. I thought that water or vinegar would not remove the ink. I thought that alcohol, detergent solution, bleach and dish liquid solution would remove the ink.
To test my theory, I measured 1/2 cup of each solvent and then put a piece of fabric that was marked with the marker in each cup. Then I found out which solvent removed the ink the best.
The alcohol removed the most ink. The dish liquid removed 1/2 of the ink after scrubbing.
My results did support my hypothesis. I thought that water wouldn't remove the ink and it did not. I thought that laundry detergent and dish liquid solution would remove the ink and they did. RESOURCES
In my background research I found out that a permanent marker needs to meet two qualifications to be permanent. It needs to use dyes or pigments and must adhere to most surfaces and/or be water resistant.
According to Webster's Pocket Dictionary and Thesaurus, permanent means continuing in the same state, lasting indefinitely; enduring. When you look at the results of the experiment, permanent markers are not permanent.
I could improve on my experiment by cutting out a larger piece of fabric or put more solvents in each cup. I could have used a bigger cup to make scrubbing easier.
This experiment was done with white pieces of fabric but you could use different colored fabric and mark it with a permanent marker. You could test it with a solvent without changing the color of the fabric. RESOURCES http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Permanent_marker