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Copy of Soft Tissues Injuries Powerpoint

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Kelsie Baker

on 1 April 2014

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Transcript of Copy of Soft Tissues Injuries Powerpoint

Soft Tissue Injuries (Pg 101-118)
Injury to soft tissue are called wounds.

WHAT IS A WOUND?
CONCLUSION
Chapter 7
TYPES OF WOUND
Closed Wound
Open Wound
Open Wounds
OPEN WOUND
ABRASION
LACERATION
cut in the skin commonly caused by sharp object
may cut layers of fat and muscle
maybe heavy bleeding or none at all
high risk of infection
contaminated by germs
OPEN WOUND
PUNCTURE
Usually from a pointed object piercing skin

do not bleed much
gunshot wound
AVULSION
forceful tearing of full thickness of the skin
damages deeper tissue, significant bleeding
complete tear of body part -amputation
Using dressings and bandages
When to call 911!
Learning Objectives
Describe the different types of soft tissue
injuries

• Describe the principles of sterile
dressing

• Explain field care for various types
of injuries

• Apply proper First Aid for soft
tissue injuries
HW for chapter
read pages 101 - 118
study guide
The simplest closed wound is a bruise.
Damaged to tissue beneath the skin
No break in the skin
Introduction
Symptoms
Swelling and pain
Black and blue mark
CLOSED WOUND
OPEN WOUND
Introduction
Break in the skin
Risk of infection
also known as 'graze'
superficial wound
TREATMENT OF
SMALL CUTS AND GRAZES
:
Wash your hands thoroughly, use a barrier if available.
Apply pressure with a clean piece of cloth to stop the bleeding.
If the wound is dirty, clean the wound by rinsing lightly under running tap water wash with soap.
Wipe away the water with a piece of clean cloth/ tissue paper.
Do not cough or sneeze over the wound & avoid touching the wound directly.
Apply an antibiotic ointment if no know allergies.
Cover with a sterile dressing and a bandage.
Determining if stitches are needed
bleeding from artery or uncontrolled bleeding.
wounds that show muscle or bone, involve joints, gape widely, or involve hands or feet
wounds from large or deeply imbedded objects
Wounds from human or animal bits
embedded object
-Top layers of skin scraped off
-raw, tender area left behind
-minor capillary bleeding
-embedded foreign particles may cause infection
Soft tissue injuries can be
minor or serious. They may
even be life-threatening!
Soft Tissues
Soft tissues are the layers of skin an the fat and muscle beneath the skins outer layers.
anytime tissue is damaged or torn, the body is threatened.
Signals of internal bleeding
tender, swollen, bruised or hard areas of the body.
rapid, weak pulse.
skin that feels cool or moist or looks pale or bluish.
vomiting blood or coughing up blood.
excessive thirst.
an injured extremity that is blue or extremely pale.
altered mental state, such as confusion, faintness, drowsiness, or unconsciousness
When to call 911!!
A person complains of severe pain or cannot move a body part without pain.
You think the force that cause the injury was great enough to cause serious injury.
An injured extremity is blue or extremely pale.
The person's abdomen is tender and distended.
The person is vomiting blood or coughing up blood.
The person shows signals of shock or becomes confused, drowsy or unconscious.
What to do until help arrives.
apply ice pack
cold will effectively control pain and swelling.
place a barrier between ice and skin.
20 on 20 off
if lower extremity do not bear weight.
In an open wound the amount of bleeding depends on the location and severity of injury.
4 main types of open soft tissue wounds are:
Abrasions
Lacerations
Avulsions
Punctures
When to call 911?
Immediately for any major open or closed wound.
Do not wash more serious wounds
that require medical attention
All open wounds need some type of covering to control bleeding and prevent infection.
Dressing - pads placed directly on wound. STERILE.
porous allowing air to circulate = promotes healing
Occlusive Dressing - closes a wound, preventing exposure to air and water. keep in medication. chest and abdominal injuries.
Bandage - hold dressings in place, apply pressure, protect wound, and provide support.
Types of bandages
Adhesive compress - small pad of non-stick gauze on a strep of adhesive tape (band aid)
Bandage compress - thick gauze dressings attache to bandage and tied in place (control bleeding)
Roller bandage - narrow bandage used to wrap a hand or wrist, medium used for arm or ankle, wide for leg. Hold dressing in place, secure a splint, or control bleeding.
Care for Major Open Wounds
Wash hand, put on a barrier.
Control bleeding by : covering the wound with a dressing and firmly apply pressure
apply a pressure bandage over the dressing to maintain pressure. If blood soaks through add more dressing and bandage.
Monitor condition.
Check for shock, keep person from getting chilled or over heated.
Reassure victim, have them rest comfortably
Wash hands immediately after care
Using a tourniquet if help is delayed.
Tourniquet is a tight band placed around an arm or leg to constrict blood vessels in order to stop blood flow to a wound.

Only use as a last resort in cases of delayed care.


Apply tourniquet around wounded extremity, just above wound.
Burns : special kind of soft tissue injury. Classified by depth.
Superficial burns (first degree)
Involve only top layer of skin.
Cause skin to become red and dry, usually painful and the area may swell.
Usually heal within a week without permanent scarring.
Partial-thickness burns (second degree)
Involve top layers of skin.
Cause skin to become red;usually painful;have blisters; may appear mottled
Often swells.
Full-thickness burns (third degree)
May destroy all layers of skin and some or all of the underlying structures
skin may be brown or black (charred), with the tissue underneath sometimes appearing white.
Can be either extremely painful or relatively painless (if burn destroys nerve endings)
Healing requires medical attention.
Trouble breathing
covering more than one body part or a large surface area
suspected burns to the airway
burns to head, neck, hands, feet, or genitals
full thickness burn
burn caused by chemicals, explosion, or electricity
What to do until help arrives:
Care for chest injury depends on type of injury.
Rib Fracture - Rarely life threatening, give the person a pillow or blanket to hold against fractured ribs. Use a sling to hold arm against injured side of chest. Monitor breathing.
Sucking Chest Wound - Cover wound with a large occlusive dressing, leave one side loose. Minimize shock, monitor breathing.
What to do until help arrives: Care depends on type of burn.
Heat (thermal) Burns
check the scene
remove person from source of the burn
check for life threatening conditions
cool with cold running water
cover burn loosely with sterile dressing
minimize shock
comfort and reassure
DO NOT APPLY ICE
DO NOT TOUCH a burn with anything except a clean covering
DO NOT REMOVE pieces of clothing that stick to burned area
DO NOT try to clean a severe burn
DO NOT break blister
DO NOT use any type of ointment on a severe burn
Chemical Burns
if burn was caused by dry chemicals, brush off the chemicals using barrier
flush the burn with cool running water
if eye is burned flush the affected area until EMS personnel take over.
if possible have person remove contaminated clothes.
Electrical Burns
never go near the person until you are sure he or she is not in contact with power source
turn off the power, care for any life threatening conditions
call 911!
Radiation (sun) burns
- care as you would for a thermal burn.
Prevention
Heat burn can be prevented by following safety practices that prevent fire and being cautious around sources of heat.
Chemical burns can be prevented by following safety precautions around all chemicals
Electrical burns can be prevented by following safety practices around electrical lines and equipment
Sunburn can be prevented by wearing appropriate clothing and sunscreen. should have SPF of at least 15
Special Situations:
certain types of wounds need special attention and care.
Crush injuries
caused by strong pressure against body part or limb.
may result in serious damage
Call 911 for any immediate life threatening condition
Severed body parts
If part has been severed or torn off call 911.
try to find part and wrap it in any clean material.
put wrapped part in a plastic bag
put plastic bag inside ice and water mixture
make sure it is taken to hospital with the person
Embedded objects
DO NOT REMOVE
place several dressings around it to keep it from moving
if only a splinter remove with tweezers

Nose Injuries
usually caused by a blow from a blunt object
have person sit with head slightly forward while pinching nostrils together
Mouth injuries
make sure person is able to breath
if bleeding from mouth and you do suspect a head neck or spinal injury place the person in a seated position leaning slightly forward.

Lip Injuries
place a roller dressing between the lip and the gum
applying cold to lips or tongue can reduce swelling
Tooth Injuries
If tooth is knocked out, control bleeding and save tooth (in milk)
when fibers and tissues are ripped out or torn from socket it is important to seek dental or emergency care ASAP
the sooner the tooth is replace the better the chance of survival

Chest Injuries
Chest injuries are a leading cause of trauma deaths each year.
what to look for:
Signals of serious chest injury
trouble breathing
severe pain at the site of injury
flushed, pale, ashen or bluish skin
coughing up blood
bruising at the site of blunt injury
Sucking noise or distinct sound with person breaths
When to call 911:
any open or closed chest wound (especially if puncture wound)
if person has trouble breathing or a sucking chest wound
Abdominal Injury
May be open or closed. Injuries can be very painful. Closed wound could rupture an organ. Always suspect an abdominal injury in a person with multiple injuries.
what to look for:
Signals of abdominal injury include
severe pain
bruising
external bleeding
nausea
vomiting
weakness
thirst
pain, tenderness or a tight feeling in the abdomen
organs protruding from the abdomen
rigid abdominal muscles
other signals of shock
When to call 911!
any serious abdominal injury
What to do until help arrives:
with a severe open injury organs may protrude.
Steps for open wound
put on disposable gloves or another barrier
What to do until help arrives:
For open wound -
use gloves or barrier
position the person on his/her back with knees bent
do not apply direct pressure!!!
do not push any protruding organs back in!!!
remove clothing from around wound.
apply moist sterile dressings loosely over wound.
For closed wound -
apply cold to affected area to control pain and swelling
carefully position person on his/her back with knees bent
keep person from getting chilled or over heated
For minor soft tissue injuries like scrapes, bruises, and sunburns it is important to give quick care and take steps to prevent infection.
Serious and life threatening soft tissue injuries are emergencies.
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