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Transcript of Week 5
The fact that they are optional does not make them unimportant Averbials in Motion The audience gasped nervously throughout the theater when the magician thrust his sword into the box
The audience gasped (how?/ manner) nervously
The audience gasped (where?/place) throughout
The audience gasped (When?/ time) when the magician
thrust his sword into
the box. p.109 Possible rearrangements When the magician thrust his sword into the box, the audience nervously gasped throughout the theater.
Throughout the theater the audience gasped nervously when the magician thrust his sword into the box
Effect: emphasis, rhythm, relation to previous sentence, variety. I. Adverbs of manner They can appear before or after the verb as well as at the beginning or end of the sentence. (The big hint is the -ly ending)
______ the wind shifted
The wind ______ shifted
The wind shifted ______
Within the verb string or auxiliary.
The roof was suddenly blown away.
I have actually been working on my project. Adverbials can be made comparative and superlative with more and most
More suddenly than expected
The minister spoke most eloquently at the service Greater Than Prepositional Phrase Structure Modifier of both nouns and verbs
throughout the theater (n)
over the rainbow (n)
for driving (v)
during the summer (n)
without running (v) Practice 1. In the winter we burn wood for our heat.
2. She'll be here in a minute.
3. Man is by nature a political animal. [Aristotle] Structural Ambiguity They discussed their problems with the teacher.
Fred tripped his teammate with the bat.
Susan washed the stones she found in the river. p.114 Nouns and Noun Phrases
that Function as Adverbials We walked home.
I'm leaving Monday morning.
They arrive this evening. They work as prepositional phrases In some sentences the preposition is optional I'm leaving ( ___ ) Monday Morning.
Everyday they studied ( ___ ) two hours. Verb Phrase Adverbials The most common form is the infinitive, the base form with to:
The woman cashed a check to give Jodi her fee.
I went home early [in order] to relax.
In order to give Jodi her fee, the woman cashed the check. often in the introductory position Definitions Clause: a group of words with a subject and a predicate.
Sentence: a word or group or words that begins with a capital letter and ends with terminal punctuation.
All sentences are clauses but not all clauses are sentences.
Dependent Clause: any clause that is not itself a complete sentence.
Independent Clause: a clause in a complex sentence that can stand alone as a complete sentence.
Complex Sentence: any sentence that includes a dependent clause of any kind. (main/subordinate)
Compound Sentence: a sentence with two or more independent clauses.
Compound-Complex: a sentence with a dependent clause and more than one independent clause. Common Subordinating Conjunctions p. 122 if, after, because, before,since, so, until, when, and while General punctuation rules -Short PPs or NPs are not necessarily set off by punctuation
-When the end of the adverbial slot is not readily apparent, the comma will be needed to prevent misreading
-Opening verb phrases and clauses are always set off by commas.
-When an adverbial interrupts a verb phrase for effect it is set off by commas.
-Use commas when the opening phrase is parenthetical: more clearly a comment on the whole sentence than a straightforward adverbial Saturday morning we all cleaned the garage.
By noon we were exhausted. During the winter vacation days are especially welcome.
In the middle of the night winds from the north brought freezing temperatures. To succeed, you'll need self-discipline. O O The stranger asked me, quite openly, for my credit card number (Luckily), no one was hurt.
(According to the polls), the incumbent was expected to win.