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US History - 10.1 - 10.2 - 10.3 - 10.4 - The Union on Peril

USH 10.1 through 10.4


on 11 April 2014

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Transcript of US History - 10.1 - 10.2 - 10.3 - 10.4 - The Union on Peril

History Alive USH 8-5, Activity 2.1, Slide G
Nativism—belief in favoring native-born Americans over immigrants
Nativists form American Party (1854), known as Know-Nothing Party
Mostly Middle-Class Protestants
They opposed rising immigration, especially by Catholics, because they saw immigrants as a threat and they saw Catholicism as anti-democratic.
New Political Parties Emerge
Comparing the Compromises
Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854
Uncle Tom’s Cabin
Abolitionist Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin stirs protest
Uncle Tom’s Cabin shows slavery as moral problem, not just political
Uncle Tom’s Cabin
So this is the lady who started the Civil War.

-- Abraham Lincoln
1811 - 1896

History Alive USH 8-5, Activity 2.1, Slide H
Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad
Underground Railroad—secret network of people who help slaves escape
Harriet Tubman escapes from slavery, becomes conductor on 19 trips
Fugitives go on foot at night, often no food, avoiding armed patrols
Some fugitives stayed in North; others go on to Canada
Sumner Brooks Affair
The Birth of the Republican Party
Slavery Divides Whigs
Northern, Southern Whigs split over slavery in 1852 elections
Democrat Franklin Pierce elected president in 1852
Whig Party splinters after Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854
Border “Ruffians”
(pro-slavery Missourians)
“Bleeding Kansas”
The Fugitive Slave Act
Fugitive Slave Act—part of Compromise of 1850, has very harsh terms
Alleged fugitives denied jury trial, right to testify on own behalf
Federal commissioners paid more for returning than freeing accused
People convicted of helping a fugitive fined, imprisoned, or both
Protest, Resistance, and Violence
Terms of the Compromise
Compromise has provisions to appease North
and South:
California to be a free state
more effective fugitive slave law
popular sovereignty—residents of territory
vote to decide slavery
government to pay Texas $10 million for its
claim to eastern NM
slave trade banned in D.C. but slavery permitted
Clay gives speech begging North and South to compromise, save Union
Terms of the Compromise
Clay’s Compromise
Some Southerners threaten secession, withdrawal of state from Union
Henry Clay offers Compromise of 1850 to settle disputes over slavery
Compromise of 1850
Henry Clay
Great Compromiser
Statehood for California
1850, CA writes constitution; elects leaders; applies for statehood
Pres. Zachary Taylor supports admission of California as free state
Recommends to angry South that slavery be decided by each territory
California Statehood
The Wilmot Proviso
Wilmot Proviso—no slavery in territory acquired from Mexico
North: slave territory adds slave states; no jobs for free workers
South: slaves are property under Constitution; fear more free states
Wilmot Proviso
The North had a more diverse economy
Industry flourished
Openly opposed slavery in the South and the new territories
More urbanized than South
Family working the cotton field on a Plantation
Agriculture and Slavery in the South
South predominantly rural, mostly plantations and small farms
Economy relies on cash crops; manufacture under 10% of U.S. goods
Few immigrants; free, enslaved African Americans meet labor needs
In 3 states, blacks are majority; in 2, are half of population
Whites fear restriction of slavery will change society, economy
Agriculture and Slavery in the South
Industry and Immigration in the North
1850s North industrialized; makes large amount, variety of products
Railroads carry raw materials east, manufactures and settlers west
small towns quickly become cities
telegraph wires provide fast communication
Immigrants become industrial workers, fear expansion of slavery
slave labor might compete with free labor
could reduce status of white workers unable to compete
The Free-Soilers
Free-Soil Party opposes extension of slavery into territories
Many Free-Soilers not abolitionists; support restrictions on blacks
Object to slavery’s impact on white wage-based labor force
Convinced of conspiracy to spread slavery throughout U.S.
Forerunner of the Republican Party
Liberty Party pursues abolition through laws; affects 1844 election
Antislavery Parties Form
Congr. Preston Brooks
Sen. Charles Sumner
“The Crime Against Kansas”
Calhoun and Webster Respond
Clay’s speech starts one of greatest debates in U.S. history
John C. Calhoun presents Southern case for slavery in territories
In famous speech, Daniel Webster calls for national unity
The Senate Debates
The Compromise is Adopted
Senate rejects compromise; Clay leaves Washington
Stephen A. Douglas reintroduces resolutions individually
President Millard Filmore gives support;
South decides to negotiate
Compromise of 1859 voted into law
Section I
Resisting the Law
Northerners send fugitives to Canada, some use force in rescues
Personal liberty laws forbid prison for fugitives, grant jury trials
Tension in Kansas And Nebraska
Popular Sovereignty
Douglas believes people want territories incorporated into Union
Wants railroad west in Chicago; thinks expansion will help Democrats
Feels popular sovereignty on slavery best way to organize new states
Thinks slavery unworkable in prairie farms but seeks South’s support
The Kansas-Nebraska Act
Douglas’s bill repeals Missouri Compromise; bitter debate ensues
The Compromise had banned slavery in territories above the 36°30’ line
1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act allows popular sovereignty on slavery
“The Pottawatomie Massacre”
Abolitionist John Brown believes God wants him to fight slavery
Brown, followers violently kill 5 men in “Pottawatomie Massacre”
Territory called Bleeding Kansas for incidents that kill some 200
Violence in the Senate
Senator Charles Sumner verbally attacks colleagues, slavery
Congressman Preston S. Brooks beats Sumner for insults to uncle
Southerners applaud Brooks; Northerners condemn him
The Race for Kansas
Northern, Southern settlers pour into Kansas Territory
Most settlers sent by antislavery emigrant aid societies
In 1855, Kansas holds election for territorial legislature
Proslavery “border ruffians” vote illegally, win fraudulent majority
Proslavery government in Lecompton;
antislavery rival in Topeka
“The Sack of Lawrence”
Proslavery grand jury brands people of
antislavery Lawrence traitors
posse of 800 burns, loots town
Section 3
The 1856 Election
Republicans select John C. Frémont—mapped OR Trail, led troops in CA
That the Republicans were taken seriously in this election showed that they were a significant political force in the North
Democrat James Buchanan elected; secession averted
They could win the presidency with a national candidate who could compete in the North without alienating Southerners.
Dred Scott Decision
Dred Scott, slave who had lived in free areas sues for freedom
1857, Chief Justice Roger B. Taney hands down decision
slaves do not have rights of citizens
no claim to freedom, suit begun in slave state
Congress cannot forbid slavery in territories
Slavery and Secession
Republican Party
1854, unhappy Whigs, Democrats, Free-Soilers form Republican Party
Diversity was one of the party’s great strengths
Horace Greeley, abolitionist, helps found Republican party
Republicans oppose slavery and the extension of slavery
Main competition for voters is Know-Nothing Party
The Lecompton Constitution
Proslavery Kansas government writes constitution, seeks statehood
Referendum votes down constitution; President Buchanan endorses it
Stephen Douglas gets second referendum; voters reject it again
Slavery Dominates Politics
Lincoln Challenges Douglas
1858, Republican Abraham Lincoln runs for Douglas’s Senate seat
Because Lincoln unknown, challenges Douglas to 7 debates
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
Section 4
Positions and Arguments
Douglas: slavery backwards, not immoral
Lincoln: slavery immoral
Douglas thinks popular sovereignty will undo slavery
Lincoln thinks legislation needed to stop spread of slavery
Both men distort other’s views, make them seem extreme
The Freeport Doctrine
Lincoln: how to form free states if territories must allow slavery
Douglas’s Freeport Doctrine—elect leaders who do not enforce slavery
Douglas wins seat; doctrine worsens regional split between Democrats
Lincoln’s attacks on “vast moral evil” of slavery draw attention
Harpers Ferry
John Brown plans to start a slave uprising, needs weapons
1859, leads band to federal arsenal in Harpers Ferry to get arms
U.S. Marines put down rebellion, capture Brown
Passions Ignite
The Republican Convention
Overflowing crowds attend presidential convention in Chicago
Lincoln is Elected President
The Shaping of the Confederacy
South Carolina and 6 other states secede:
want complete independence from federal control
fear end to their way of life
want to preserve slave labor system
Feb. 1861 Confederacy or Confederate States of America forms
Confederacy permits slavery, recognizes each state’s sovereignty
Former senator Jefferson Davis unanimously elected president
Southern Secession
John Brown’s Hanging
Brown is hanged for high treason, December 1859
Many Northerners admire Brown; Southerners fear future uprisings
Seward and Lincoln
Senator William H. Seward expected to win nomination
Lincoln wins nomination; seen as more moderate than Seward
tells South will not meddle with slaves; South feels threatened
The Election of 1860
Democrats split over slavery
Lincoln wins with less than half of popular vote
gets no Southern electoral votes
The Calm Before the Storm
Buchanan calls secession illegal, says also illegal to stop it
Mass resignations from government in Washington, D.C.
The Calm Before the Storm
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