Transcript of Hagia Sophia
Background How They Built it. Turkish Takeover Fun Facts Earthquake! Time for Repairs Where is it? The emperor had material brought from all over the empire – such as Hellenistic columns from the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, large stones from quarries in porphyry from Egypt, green marble from Thessaly, black stone from the Bosporus region, and yellow stone from Syria. More than ten thousand people were employed. Life of Hagia Sophia In 1453 Sultan Mehmed attacked Constantinople. His army pillaged the city for three days and with their prized target set on Hagia Sophia. Mehmed turned the basilica into a Mosque with a snap of his fingers. Four minerats were added to the structure to make it an official Mosque. Hagia Sophia Who Built it? Hagia Sophia is located today in Istanbul, Turkey. Istanbul was once Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire. Before Hagia Sophia was built there was a cathedral in place. This cathedral was burnt down in the Nika Riots, they took place because of the ruler's extreme taxes on the civilians of Constantinople. So the wealthy Emperor Justinian I (the first) says: Build a Bigger One! Justinian I put two architects in charge, Isidore of Miletus and Anthemius of Tralles. These two men started their plans for the basilica on February 23, 532 A.D. The two architects plans were to build a dome on top of 4 arches that make a square base. In their time this was impossible. They had to come up with something new. They had to use pendentives, curved triangles that could form to the arches to make a circular base. Arches and Pendentives The weight of the dome was so great it was pushing the arches down and forcing them out. The architects built supporting domes and arches to counteract the outward force and turned it into a downward force to push down to the ground. Hagia was Built in No Time It was the largest basilica in the Byzantine Empire built in only 5 years. (537 A.D.) Although, the inside mosaics were not completed till around 578 A.D. The red arrow represents the push of the dome and the yellow arrow represents the counteracting force of the supporting domes. An Earthquake hit the basilica In 553 A.D causing cracks in the main and eastern dome. Five years later another earthquake came and collapsed the whole main dome. Emperor Justinian ordered Isidorus the Younger, nephew of Isidore of Miletus, to rebuild the broken dome. He used lighter materials and elevated the dome by 30 feet. Finalizing the structures current height at 183 feet. The reconstruction was completed in 562 A.D. How did the whole structure not collapse? This structure had a secret within the walls The brick and mortar were both made out of very light weight rock and a secret ingredient "Calcium Silica". This ingredient made the walls earthquake proof because over time the calcium silica could fill in hairline cracks by itself, ceasing cracks from growing into hazards. Minerats Today Hagia Sophia is in one piece and is used as a museum to show ancient Christian and Islam culture. It has survived for a millennium and a half. Through its life it has been an Eastern Orthodox Cathedral, Catholic Church, and an Imperial Mosque. Hagia Sophia was recently featured in the Oscar winning movie "Argo".Full transcript
The Blue Mosque built southwest of Hagia, is a somewhat replica of the ancient structure.
Hagia Sophia means "Holy Wisdom" in greek.
Works Cited Froehle, Virgina A. "Hagia Sophia: A Rich and Holy History - January 2008 Issue of St. Anthony Messenger Magazine Online." Hagia Sophia: A Rich and Holy History - January 2008 Issue of St. Anthony Messenger Magazine Online. Franciscan Media, 1996. Web. 1 Mar. 2013.
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Wegner, Emma. "Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History." Hagia Sophia, 532-37. New York: The Metropolitan of Art, Oct. 2004. Web. 4 Mar. 2013.