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Darwin Initiative - pesticide impact

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Eloise Touni

on 15 August 2013

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Transcript of Darwin Initiative - pesticide impact

Pesticide impacts on biodiversity in Ethiopia
& agro-ecological solutions

Darwin Initiative
Pre-project situation
Project Overview & planning
Communication & Awareness
Cotton IPM
Project overview
National policies on food security and agricultural exports have increased reliance on agrochemicals, but without adequate measures to avoid side-effects on human and environmental health.

Local communities remain unheard in conservation and agricultural policy forums
Communities & stakeholders
Farmers and policymakers are unaware of the economic costs from pesticide abuse (e.g. disruption to pollinators and biological pest control);
Biodiversity and chemicals status
Diversity and abundance of Rift Valley migratory birds are declining, particularly wetland species
No data on pesticide volumes entering aquatic systems - but heavy use in cotton & vegetables; aerial spraying of quelea birds; effluent from caustic soda and pesticide formulation factories
National Parks and the Ethiopian Wildlife & Natural History Society prioritise ecosystem assessment of contamination and bird declines but no work done to date to establish a link
Ecosystem approach to tackling these related issues and highlighting potential ways forward (e.g. TEEB approaches) is weak

Previous activities in project site
2007-8 Training of Trainers in ecotox monitoring; network of trained individuals; conducted pilot rapid risk assessment of DDT in Rift Valley
Ministry of Agriculture projects on cotton IPM, with review by PAN Ethiopia
ISD/ PAN Ethiopia/ EWNHS projects with schools and communities
Many cotton smallholders are in
debt as poor yields
fail to cover
their high
For countries "rich in biodiversity but poor in financial resources"
Three biodiversity conventions - CBD; CMS;

Collaborative projects; draw on UK biodiversity expertise
2012 criterion on poverty alleviation - hence PAN UK & Ethiopia expertise & IPM farmer project
Ecotoxicology monitoring
Eloise Touni
Outputs 4 & 6
Outputs 1 & 2
Output 5
Output 3
Conferences, seminars: £8,000
Ethiopia's policy context - Tadesse
UK & Ethiopia training – scientists
Baseline survey on aquatic food chains & monitoring plan
Field work & NRG support
Farmer/ community/ school children monitoring
Reporting & dissemination
Cotton IPM Farmer Field School
TRAID project in place at time of Darwin application - opportunity to
Link ecotox/biodiversity with poverty alleviation and development
Actively involve local people (ecosystem approach)
Demonstrate matching funding
Sustainable agriculture
biodiversity conservation
& sound use of chemicals
& poverty reduction
initiate programmes with NGOs;
integrate biodiversity concerns into agricultural and high school curricula
ensure that indigenous and community knowledge and perceptions guide the project
dialogue with farmers and local stakeholder and community participation
demonstrate value of ecotox monitoring for practical and policy changes to support conservation of biodiversity

Communication plan - objectives for each project component (ecotox, IPM, policy) and analysis of messages and channels for each target audience
Communicating the worth of biodiversity
and impacts of chemicals on it,
to local, national and international stakeholders
Ecosystem Approach
Ecotox survey & community monitoring = £34,000
Field monitoring equipment = £4,000
Lab services = £8,000
Fieldwork operating costs: £5,000
PAN UK conferences (yr 3): £1,500
Proposal summary
Change attitudes about the importance of pesticide dependence vs biodiversity/ ES in ensuring food security and livelihoods
By the end of this week (Thursday, Friday, Saturday morning), we should -
Describe the basic obligations and common elements of the chemicals and biodiversity conventions and analyse the implementation of these instruments in Ethiopia - successes and gaps;
Explain how the Darwin Initiative project fits into this context in Ethiopia
Outline the four main components of the Darwin project and suggest ways for them to reinforce each other
Produce a strategy/workplan, milestones & budget for each component
Few Rift Valley stakeholders understand how agro-ecological farming which conserves biodiversity can reduce poverty by improving farm income and supporting
FFS participants monitor
other ES / ecotox sampling
existing tools
Communities ?

Feed ecotox results to FFS - impact on uptake of IPM? Other reasons
What are the key messages?
What is realistic with our budget?
What is realistic with the existing budget, what can attract another donor?
What are the main policy opportunities/ threats to focus on?
How will group address non-project issues (fertilizer, irrigation...) also important for biodiversity/ag cross-over?

How can the stakeholder group be established?
Establish a new forum or link with an existing one?
Terms of Reference & participants
How can the group best continue after the project?

What is needed to ensure effectiveness?
Research / preparatory papers eg policy analysis
Technical support
Influential participants

Set budget & timings & responsibilities
research / consultancy
Feed evidence on pesticide impacts (ecotox monitoring) into policy forums
Mainstream chemicals and biodiversity issues into agricultural & rural (chemical) development policy and programmes
Sustainable agriculture e.g. institutionalise IPM training
Reduce perverse incentives & introduce sustainable incentives
Share information and traditional knowledge - e.g. report environmental incidents through Rotterdam EIRF
Raise awareness of IAASTD, chemicals MEAs, Code of Conduct and SAICM
National Biodiversity and Agriculture Stakeholder Group - NBASG
Called for in 4th CBD Report
Managed and run by ISD and PAN Ethiopia during project - in longer term?
Pesticide use
Increased production
Food security & livelihoods
Chemical misuse and dependency
Biodiversity & ecosystem services loss
Exposure & indebtedness
Sustainable ag, IPM
Data publishing and access
Stakeholders to target for public awareness
If you had a magic wand...

What would you achieve with this project?
What changes, by whom, would you like to see?
p 8 & 9 in the Biodiversity mainstreaming training module - stakeholders to engage
Project partners & roles
All activities take place in Ethiopia - Ethiopian partners must drive project forward
PAN UK and NR Group - offer support on demand from Ethiopian partners (ecotoxicology, ecosystem approach, IPM, community monitoring, communications, policy and conventions)
FFS: agroecosystem observation of natural predators = ES service (pest control) - other ES services ?

Evidence of chemicals in wetlands can reinforce efforts to adopt IPM; & for supply chain certification

Use FFS methodology/approach to enrich ecotox method - involve community, share results, stimulate action and mobilisation
Action plan

Monitoring & Evaluation
Uses for the M&E system
Accountability - donor & stakeholders
Planning & managing
Specific 'spaces': what information, for whom, when, in what form, to do what?
Processes (benefits of following process); and findings (how the results will be used)

Outcome mapping
Focus on
- behaviours, relationships, activities, or actions
Boundary partners - people, groups, and organizations who we
directly work


How can the program best contribute to this vision? What areas does it need to work in to promote and support the realization of the vision? What does it need to do & accomplish in these areas?
Boundary partner 2
Boundary partner 3
Boundary partner ...
Boundary partner...
Boundary partner 1
Total success - Assuming everything went well, what changes did your program help to bring about? What have your partners achieved? What are they doing differently?
What individuals, organizations, or groups will the program need to work with to effect these changes? Who will you work with most directly? Who can help or hinder your work? Who are the ultimate beneficiaries?
Rationale & opportunities
Full transcript