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Transcript of Industrial Revolution
Social Impact – People moved from the countryside to towns and cities. Conditions for many workers worsened.
Political Impact – Reform movements demanded social change, such as a 10-hour work day and a ban on child labor. Middle class supported reforms in England, like the Reform of 1832. Led to unification of Italy and Germany.
Impact of Industrial Revolution
Textile Revolution – the spinning jenny and other inventions increased the production of cotton thread and cloth.
Factory System – Goods were made in the factory instead of at home and where made by machines instead of by hand.
Steam Engine - James Watt’s improved steam engine powered the new machinery.
Transportation Revolution – Steam power was used to power steamboats and railroads.
Great Britain was ready for changes due to its favorable geography.
Britain had good transportation and communication systems.
Global trade and prosperous agriculture.
Strong commercial outlook and global empire.
Scientific advances in the 17th and 18th centuries made inventors open to new ways of doing things. They had the technical skills to build the new machines.
Pre-Conditions for Industrial Revolution
In pre-industrial societies, most people lived in villages; families worked together; children learned from parents; work was on a natural rhythm of daylight/season.
With the industrial revolution, men, women, and children lived in crowded cities and work moved into the factory; machines control the rhythm of work; less time was spent by family members at home or together; many families had less access to fresh air, water and sunlight; diseases such as cholera and typhus spread quickly.
Industrialization and the Family
Long Term Impact
Economic and political power for industrialized nations
Growth of worldwide trade
Growth in colonization
Advances in transportation, agriculture, and communication
Improved standard of living
Loss of family stability
Unions and socialistic philosophy
Legislation for better working conditions and child labor restrictions
Increases in farm output
Rise in population
Lack of natural resources in Great Britain
Sound banking system
Climate for new ideas such as inventions
Causes & Effects Industrialization
Primary Source: The Opening of the Liverpool to Manchester Railway
Technological Innovations of the Industrial Revolution
James Watt – efficient steam engine and teamed with Mathew Boulton
Robert Fulton – 1st efficient steamboat named Clermont
Louis Pasteur – Pasteurization and rabies vaccine
Marie Curie – Radioactivity and radiology
Thomas Edison – Electric light bulb, phonograph, and over 1300 inventions patented
Agricultural Revolution – enclosure movement, crop rotation, seed drill, and livestock breeding increase the food supply and population; workers available for factory work.
Natural Resources – plentiful harbors, rivers, coal and iron for machinery, power and transportation.
Economic & Political Stability – rising middle class to provide capital, banking system, political stability, government supportive of investment and entrepreneurship.
Causes of the Industrial Revolution
Carl Marx Friedrich Engels
An economic system based on the belief that factors of production are owned by the private sectors for the good of investors.
Economic system where people and business determine price and availability of goods and services (Market Economy)
The government takes a Laissez Faire approach to regulating business
Individuals enjoy the freedom of making their own economic decisions.
People have the right to own property and to use their property as they see fit.
Allows investors and business owners to put their resources where they have the greatest benefit for the economy.
Consumers are given a choice in the type of goods available and how much they want to pay.
Forces producers to attract consumers by improving quality and reducing prices.
Benefits of a Free-Enterprise System/ Capitalism/ Market Economy
Primary Source: The Wealth of Nations
Attacked the British system of mercantilism as inefficient and a waste of resources.
Favored a laissez-faire (hands off) policy.
Published The Wealth of Nations, 1776.
First to explain how the free enterprise system works.
Production benefits from a division of labor.
Supply and demand determine prices of production.
Inefficient producers go out of business while producers who make the best goods and sell at the best price survive, this benefiting the entire economy.
Without government interference, a free market-place would create social harmony. “as if by an invisible hand.”
The Plight of Women's Work in the Early
Industrial Revolution in England and Wales article
What were the key economic philosophies that developed in the 18th and 19th centuries in responses to industrialization?
What were the origins of socialism and how did socialist ideas contrast with those of Adam Smith?
What did Karl Marx predict would happen as nations proceeded to industrialize?
What were the causes for the transformation of work and life that we call the Industrial Revolution?
What were the economic, political, demographic and social implications of industrialization?
Basic Economic Questions: (1) What will be produced? (2) How will it be produced? (3) Who gets what is produced?
Free Enterprise – Produced make what they want; consumer buy what they need. Supply and demand determines prices.
Adam Smith – Explained the free enterprise system; stated the “Invisible Hand” theory.
Karl Marx – Felt capitalists oppressed workers; one day workers would overthrow capitalist and establish a classless society; private property would be eliminated.
James Watts and his steam engine
History Maker: James Watt
Is a more extreme form of socialism as developed by Karl Marx.
Karl Marx co-authored the Communist Manifesto, which set forth the basic principles of Communism.
The Industrial Revolution had enriched the wealthy and impoverished the poor.
The workers (proletariat) will overthrow the bourgeoisie (middle classes and business owners) and establish a “dictatorship of the proletariat.”
Russia established the first communist government during WWI.
An economic system based on the belief that factors of production are owned by the public and operates for the welfare of all.
Precipitated by the terrible working conditions of the Industrial Revolution
The government, rather than business, should plan the economy to protect workers from greedy employers (Command Economy)
Short Term Impact
Problems of overcrowded cities
Poor working conditions