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Computer Hardware

Computer Hardware - Parts of a computer

Anthony Campbell

on 17 September 2012

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Transcript of Computer Hardware

Computer Hardware Input Devices Output Devices Secondary Storage Different Types of Computers Laptop Computer

a.k.a. - Notebook

a.k.a. - Netbook

A laptop computer is a personal computer for mobile use. A laptop utilizes most of the same components as a desktop computer, including a display, a keyboard, a pointing device such as a touchpad (also known as a trackpad) and/or a pointing stick, and speakers into a single unit. A laptop is powered by electricity via an AC adapter, and can be used away from an outlet using a rechargeable battery. Desktop Computer

a.k.a. - PC - Personal Computer

a.k.a. - Microcomputer

A desktop computer is a personal computer (PC) in a form intended for regular use at a single location, as opposed to a mobile laptop or portable computer. Early desktop computers are designed to lay flat on the desk, while modern towers stand upright. Most modern desktop computers have separate screens and keyboards. Mainframe

Mainframe computers are powerful computers used primarily by corporate and governmental organizations for critical applications, bulk data processing such as census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning, and transaction processing. The term originally referred to the large cabinets that housed the central processing unit and main memory of early computers. Later, the term was used to distinguish high-end commercial machines from less powerful units. Supercomputer

A supercomputer is a computer at the frontline of current processing capacity, particularly speed of calculation. In the 1990s, machines with thousands of processors began to appear and by the end of the 20th century, massively parallel supercomputers with tens of thousands of "off-the-shelf" processors were the norm. Supercomputers are used for highly calculation-intensive tasks such as problems including quantum physics, weather forecasting, climate research, oil and gas exploration, molecular modeling, and physical simulations (such as simulation of airplanes in wind tunnels, simulation of the detonation of nuclear weapons, and research into nuclear fusion). It includes all the physical parts of the computer,
but it does NOT include the software. Keyboard

The most common input device for the computer. Windows keyboards have 104-keys.
A standard keyboard has 101-keys. Mouse

The second most common input device for the computer. The mouse was invented in 1952 as part of a Royal Canadian secret military project. It was first used commercially in 1981 by the Xerox Corp. Touch Screen

A touchscreen is an electronic visual display that can detect the presence and location of a touch within the display area. Turn this ... into this! Scanner

A device that optically scans images, printed text, handwriting, or an object, and converts it to a digital image. (P.O.S.) - Point of Sale Devices

A POS terminal manages the selling process by a salesperson accessible interface. The same system allows the creation and printing of the receipt. A "checkout" refers to a POS terminal or electronic cash register. A POS reads the (U.P.C.) or Universal Product Codes or Barcodes. All these Input Devices receive information from the user
and sends the information to the Central Processing Unit. The
Processor Unit Primary
Storage Central Processing Unit
C.P.U. is made up of 2 parts: & Central Processing Unit or CPU

The CPU is the brains of the computer. It is the chip that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetical, logical, and input/output operations of the system. The CPU is divided into 2 parts: Control Unit

The Control Unit extracts instructions from the computer's memory and executes them. It directs the operation of the other units by providing timing and control signals. All computer resources are managed by the Control Unit. Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)

The ALU is a digital circuit that performs arithmetic and logical operations. The ALU is a fundamental building block of the central processing unit of a computer. All the computer's math operations are performed in this unit. The Control Unit and ALU
are the main parts of the CPU: ROM - Read Only Memory (Permanent)

Data stored in ROM CAN NOT be modified, or can be modified only slowly or with difficulty. Primary Storage consists of both:
ROM and RAM... RAM - Random Access Memory (Temporary)

It holds the instructions of all of the programs that you have opened on your computer. Data can be written to or erased from this device, and it can be accessed in any order. RAM can be added to a computer to increase the computer's temporary memory and it allows it to run faster. Data that you want to save and maybe, take with you, CAN NOT be stored in Primary Storage, it must be stored on certain Secondary Storage Devices... Data that is saved, can be retrieved or loaded from your Secondary Storage Devices and sent to the Processor Unit. Remember, NOT all of these devices are read and write capable. (Short-Term Memory) (Long-Term Memory) Hard Drive

The most common Secondary Storage Device. A hard disk drive is a device for storing and retrieving digital information. Hard Drives can hold Megabytes, Gigabytes, or Terabytes of data. USB Flash Drive

Jump Drive
Thumb Drive
Jazz Drive

USB flash drives are often used for the same purposes for which floppy disks or CD-ROMs were used. They are smaller, faster, have thousands of times more capacity, and are more durable and reliable because they have no moving parts. CD-ROM

"Compact Disc Read-only memory"

A CD-ROM is a compact disc that contains data that can be read, but the disc can NOT be written on. It can store 700 MB of data and 80 minutes of music. CD-R

"Compact Disc Recordable"

CD-R is a Write Once Read Many (WORM) optical medium, although the whole disk does not have to be entirely written in the same session. It is NOT capable of playing on many readers. CD-RW

"Compact Disc Re-Writable"

A CD-RW is a compact disc that can be read and written on. CD-RWs CAN NOT be read in some CD-ROM drives built prior to 1997. CD-ROM drives will bear a "MultiRead" certification to show compatibility. CD-RW discs need to be blanked before reuse. DVD

"Digital Versatile Disc"

DVDs are the standard for storing and distributing video/audio content, but it can also hold data. DVDs offer higher storage capacity than Compact Discs while having the same dimensions. 1 DVD can hold the same information as 6 CDs. DVDs also come as DVD-R and DVD-RW. In order for a computer to be effective, you need to get feedback from the computer. This can be immediate feedback or delayed feeback Monitor (Display Screen)

The most common output device for the computer. It provides a Soft-Copy Feedback to the user.

Key Terms to Know:

Resolution - it refers to the clarity of the image that appears on the screen. This is based on the number of pixels.

Pixels - they are the extremely small dots on the screen that make up the text or the image you see on the screen.

1280 x 1024 is a common Resolution. Printer

A printer is a device which produces a text or graphics of documents stored in electronic form, usually on physical print media such as paper or transparencies. It provides a Hard-Copy Feedback to the user. There are 2 main types of printers available today:

Ink Jet Printer - it sprays ink onto the paper to form each character or image. It allow you to do low cost color printing.

DeskJet Printer - Hewlett Packard
BubbleJet Printer - Canon
Lexmark Printer - IBM

Laser Printer - this type of printer uses a laser to control the formation of each character or image. It has the best print quality.
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