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Aluminum

Science
by

Erica Landreth

on 1 October 2012

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Transcript of Aluminum

Aluminum! By Erica Squared The raw materials of aluminum are:
Bauxite (made of aluminum oxide, sand, iron, etc. and used to make aluminum oxide)
Sodium hydroxide (used to separate the impurities)
Other chemicals There are two main steps to getting aluminum to become aluminum:
The Bayer process- refine the bauxite ore into aluminum oxide.
The Hall-Heroult process- release pure aluminum by smelting the aluminum oxide. Sources:
http://www.madehow.com/Volume-5/Aluminum.html#b
http://www.chemicool.com/elements/aluminum.html
http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/102aluminum.html
http://www.chemistryexplained.com/elements/A-C/Aluminum.html#b
http://earth911.com/recycling/metal/aluminum-can/how-is-an-aluminum-can-recycled/
http://greenliving.about.com/od/recyclingwaste/a/Aluminum-Recycling-Can-Recycling.htm There are two main steps to processing aluminum:
The Bayer process: Refine bauxite ore to create aluminum oxide. The bauxite is crushed and mixed with sodium hydroxide, then heated to 520 degrees F. Then, it goes to a settling tank, where the impurities that don't dissolve sink to the bottom. Then "seed crystals" are added, then removed, then baked until they have no water.
The Hall-Heroult process: smelting the aluminum oxide to get aluminum. The crystals dissolve in cryolite, then conduct electricity from the carbon rods at the bottom of the container. It is transferred, then molded. Presto! You have aluminum! The useful life of aluminum is a very long time. It is one of the most durable metals, with over half of the aluminum made still in circulation today. I could not find an exact useful life, but as long as the can isn't rusty and the food inside isn't expired, you can use aluminum as a package for food for years, even decades, to come. Aluminum is Group 3 on the periodic table. Its abbreviation is Al. Energy Costs of Aluminum:
Aluminum is extremely expensive to produce. 17.4 megawatt hours of electrical energy are used to produce one metric ton of aluminum. That is 3 times more expensive than it costs to make one metric ton of steel. Recycling aluminum is a lot less expensive than creating it (see recycling page). Money! When aluminum reaches the end of its life, it can be recycled into new aluminum cans. Recycling uses just 5% of energy used to create new aluminum. Yay for recycled aluminum cans! Unfortunately, Americans still can't seem to wrap their brains around the fact that they can recycle, so aluminum ends up in landfills at the end of its life, too. : ( Aluminum Cans Facts about recycling aluminum:
Over half the aluminum cans are recycled. Yay for recycling!
EVERY minute of your living, breathing life, 113,204 aluminum cans are recycled. Yay times 113,204!
To recycle an aluminum can, it is squished into a 30-pound block, then they are shredded and melted, then molded to make new cans. This is the aluminum can life cycle.
Aluminum has the ability to be recycled again and again! Green Factors of Aluminum Aluminum cans are very recyclable- they are the biggest source of recycled aluminum.
31% of recycled aluminum comes from recycled scrap aluminum, which is mostly aluminum cans.
About 95% of aluminum produced is recycled.
If you recycle an aluminum can, it can be back in the store in 60 days.
There is no limit to how many times you can recycle aluminum.
Millions of tons of aluminum are recycled each year. ¡Fin! How do big companies ship lots of aluminum cans, you ask?
First, the cans are put into boxes of around twenty or so, which are called cases. These could be sold at restaurant supply stores or other stores that sell insane quantities of food, such as Costco or Sams, or could be sent to your grocery store to be taken out of the cases and be sold individually. But to get there, a bunch of cases are stacked up on top of short wooden structures called pallets, which can be easily moved by pallet-jacks and shipped. The cases are secured on the pallet by being wrapped in several layers of sturdy plastic, which is like industrial-grade plastic wrap. The pallets of cases of product can then be put on trucks and shipped to stores near you. An EricaSquared Production
by Erica Landreth and Erica Walters Physical Properties of Aluminum Cans
Silvery Metal
Non-magnetic
2.8 hardness on Mohs scale
Boiling Point: around 2,400 degrees celcius
Melting Point: 660 degrees celcius
Density: 2.7 g/mL (denser than water)
Ductile and Malleable: Can be hammered into a thin piece (Aluminum foil!) There are many ways to reduce the impact on our poor Earth, using trusty aluminum cans.
First of all, we have the traditional and predictable recycling. You can recycle old aluminum cans into new aluminum cans many times over, due to the awesome properties of durability and re usability that aluminum cans posses. This keeps tons of cans out of landfills and prevents us from having to gather new materials for new cans, which is very resourceful of us recyclers. In lots of locations in our great world, over 95% of aluminum is recycled. Woo-hoo!
The sad part about aluminum cans is that, unfortunately, people like to throw them out their windows onto the street. But, you can help our world recover from this horrible crime we have committed. You can pick up these cans and put them in your neighborhood recycling bin and save them from other people who might *gasp* send them to the landfill, of all places! Together, we can reduce aluminum can littering.
And most important of all, don't be a waste-creater. Don't litter, and make sure to recycle as many aluminum cans you can.
Using these simple methods, we can help our Earth stay clean. Marketing In 1964, Royal Crown Cola released two soft drinks in aluminum cans. This was a good way to package these soft drinks as the aluminum could withstand the pressure caused by carbonation and was lightweight and easy to print brand names and logos on. In the first year of being sold, a million cases of soda were packaged in aluminum cans. In 1967, Coca-Cola and Pepsi Cola adopted the aluminum can trend. From then on, aluminum cans have soared.
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