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Copy of How to Deal with Grammar Errors?
Transcript of Copy of How to Deal with Grammar Errors?
Kevin A. Brand Fonseca
How to Deal with Grammar Errors?
What are errors?
Is there an error here?
What kind of error is it?
What caused it?
What should I do about it?
The Sunday night past, the doorbell rangs. I opened the door and I had a big surprise, my brother was stopping in the door. He was changing a lof of. He was having a long hair but him looking was interesting. Now, he’s twenty five years, and he’s lower. We speaked all night and we remebered a lot of thinks. At last when I went to the bed was the four o’clock.
Identification of Errors
Classification of Errors
The Cause of An Error
Over-generalization (developmental errors)
Negative (L1 interferance)
" The Case of Systematic Errors"
Correction provides feedback to confirm a hypothesis.
Systematicity accounts for self- correction.
Self-correction shows that the rule is not yet automatic.
Which Errors really matter?
Beginning level: only errors that impede communication.
Intermediate level: only errors that occur frequently.
Advanced level: only errors that cause stigmatization.
Hendrickson (as cited in Ramirez Acosta, 2007)
Responding to Errors
"He has a long hair"
Negative feedback: "No," facial expressions, mmm, or "that's not quite correct, but thanks."
No clue of what is going on
Affects affective filter
Utterance Repair: "He has long hair"
The student's utterance is reformulated.
The flow of the conversation is kept.
Not only form but also meaning.
Pinpointing with an explicit approach: "No article"
Use of handy metalanguage
Promotes both self-correction and peer correction
Responding to Errors
"He has a long hair"
Request other students for clarification: "No, anyone"
An ambiguous invitation to peer correction
humiliates the original student.
Pinpointing with an implicit approach: "He has...?"
Emphasizing the last word before the error.
The technique can be reinforced with "finger-coding"
Teaching Grammar through Reformulation
A technique used in the teaching of writing
"This is how I would say it"
Step 1: The teacher introduces the theme by placing a newspaper picture of a disaster and indicates with a gesture that students should say anything about the topic.
Step 2: When students start to run out of ideas, he gives the chalk to one students to collect the ideas about the topic and write them up on the board. Then, he class constructs a text.
Step 3: The teacher reads the text aloud without commenting, though he asks questions where the meaning is unclear.
Step 4: Students work in pairs and
compare their own text.
Japanese and earthquake have got a quite long time relationship. More than 60 years ago the big one had occurred and it caused terrible damage, for example fire which had been used for cooking at lunch time. They were quite ignorant with what now on that day day almost all the Japanese do the situation practice against the disaster since it is predicted that they big one will surely occure before long. so that most of them keep immerget food, drink, medicine etc. Of course we hope these things are not in need.
Reformulated Teacher Text
The Japanese and earthquakes have had a long-term relationship. More than 60 years ago the "Big One" occurred and it caused terrible damage, such as fires, due to the fact that people used fire to cook their mid-day meal. They didn't really know what precautions to take. So now, on the anniversary of that day, almost everyone in Japan does an earthquake drill, since it is predicted that the next "Big One" will definitely occur before long. This is why most people keep emergency food, drink and medicine at home. Of course, we hope these things will not be needed.
No material preparation required.
The greatest demand is on the teacher's skill at on-the-spot reformulation.
Grammatical item may not arise in the task.
More relevant than an imported text.
It must be handled sensitively.
It's not "chalky-talky"
Ss - pair/group work
Interference w/ fluency
Stressful classroom atmosphere
Attitudes to Errors
“He has a long hair.”
Echo the mistake with a quizzical intonation. Less threatening than saying No, but students often fail to self-correct and think the teacher merely questions the truth they said.
“Just one? Like this ?”
Showing Ss´ unintended error.
“A long hair is just one single hair, like you find in your soup. For the hair on your head you wouldn’t use an article: He has long hair.”
Impromptu teaching point; Teacher-centered and passive students.
“Oh, he has long hair, has he?”
Temporary scaffold for children’s developing language competence.
Drawback: students might not notice the differences between the utterance from theirs and teachers’.
E.g.: child: Teddy hat.
Mother: Yes, Teddy’s got a hat on, hasn’t he?
“Good.”: ( OK)
Intention is to acknowledge
students’ contribution, irrespective
of either accuracy or meaning
Teacher says nothing but writes down error for future reference.
Intention is to postpone the feedback so as not to disrupt the talk. (Real operating conditions)
Trick: to intervene w/o interfering
The choice of feedback
strategy will depend on
3 main factors
The type of error
The type of activity
The type of learner
Using learners’ errors to review cohesive devices (intermediate)
Participant: a class of mixed nationalities in Australia
Goal: sentences and parts of sentences are connected by words like and, but, however, so etc.
Step 1: the teacher hands out a worksheet which consist of sentences collected from students’ previous written work, and he asks them to attempt to correct in pairs and identify one feature in common.
Step 2: the teacher helps them to pick out some peripheral problems (went substitute for has dropped into) and avoids dealing with despite and nevertheless.
Step 3: the teacher distributes a handout about grammar and ask them to study before returning to the sentence correction task.
Step 4: the teacher elicits
corrected versions of sentence
and writes on the board, underlining
the linking devices and ask individuals to explain the usage.
Step 5: the teacher has out
the exercise about linking
The E-factor: Self-study grammar books or reference notes are available, so making grammar handout is unnecessary. (economy
Error-analysis is effective for L1 transfer mistake. (efficacy: how well it works)
Grammar lessons should be taught around errors the learners actually made, but not taught to preempt the errors they might make. Error-driven approach: focus instruction on what really matters, in favour of effectiveness. (efficacy: meaninful)
The A-factor: a focus on errors may discourage learners. However, most students accept explicit feedback on error between focused instruction and random acquisition.
“I am sorry. I didn’t understand.” Variations: Sorry? He what? Excuse me? etc. clarification requests
Thank you so much!
Request for clarification