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Church History

Church History

Paul DiPietro

on 5 March 2015

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Transcript of Church History

1000 BCE
500 BCE
400 BCE
100 CE
200 CE
300 CE
400 CE
500 CE
600 BCE
700 BCE
800 BCE
900 BCE
300 BCE
200 BCE
100 BCE
600 CE
700 CE
800 CE
900 CE
1400 CE
1300 CE
1200 CE
1100 CE
1000 CE
1700 CE
1600 CE
1500 CE
2000 CE
1900 CE
1800 CE
2100 CE
Age of Exploration
and Conquest

Martin Luther

Early Church


Greek Rule





Church Fathers
of Hippo
Early Middle Ages
High Middle Ages
Late Middle Ages
Thomas Aquinas
Vatican II
Notre Dame de Paris
Aristotle Reintroduced in West
by way of Muslim Scholar
Charlemagne rescues Pope Adrian I from invading Lombards in 772 CE.
Coronation of Charlemagne by Pope Leo III (800). After Crowning him, the Pope knelt before him as was the practice in the Eastern Empire.
Viking Invasions 700 - 1100
Hundred Years War 1337 to 1453
Battle of Crecy
Late Medieval
Trade Routes
Journeys of Exploration
Galileo's Telescope
Church History Timeline
French Salon
Pope Saint John Paul II
1978 - 2005
Pope Saint John XXIII
1958 - 1963
Theodosius I (379 - 395)
Outlawed Paganism and effectively made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire.
Chastised by Ambrose for allowing a massacre at Thessalonica in retaliation for the murder of a military governor. Theodosius did public penance and thereafter was strongly influenced by Ambrose.
Byzantine Emperor 527 - 565
Rescues the West from barbarian invaders. Establishes an outpost at Revena. His Attempts to exert imperial control over the west are devastating to the people and the land, and ultimately only minimally effective.
Leading opponent of Arianism after the Council of Nicaea.
Syllabus of
Errors (1864)
The cost of constructing St. Peter's Basilica contributed to the popular discontent which resulted in the Protestant Reformation.
Inscription: Invictus "Unconquered / Invincible" Constantine.
Behind Constantine is Invictus Sol--the unconquered Sun god, Apollos wearing his solar crown. Invictus Sol is also seen riding his chariot on Constantine's shield. Pagans appreciated this acknowledgment of a traditional god, while Christians found the monotheistic cult of the sun less offensive than polytheistic paganism.
Arch of Constantine commemorating his victory in Rome. The Inscription reads: "To the Emperor Caesar Flavius Constantinus, the greatest, pious, and blessed Augustus: because he, inspired by the divine, and by the greatness of his mind, has delivered the state from the tyrant and all of his followers at the same time, with his army and just force of arms, the Senate and People of Rome have dedicated this arch, decorated with triumphs." There are no explicitly Christian symbols on the archway.
Hagia Eirene, the first church built by Constantine. The First Council of Constantinople was held here in 381 CE.
Simeon Stylites atop his pillar.
St. Anthony of the Desert.
Codex Sinaiticus. Constantine commissioned 50 copies of the Bible. They were produced in Ceasaria in Eusebius' scriptorium using vellum. Later, vellum will be replaced by papyrus as the medium of choice.
Constantine's Basilica at Triers, Germany. Basilica were modeled after the audience chambers of Roman rulers.
St. Pachomius instructed by an angel to establish a monastic community and given a monastic rule.
Nero (64) severe, local, Peter & Paul
Domitian (90) Revelations, Uncertain, atheists
Trajan (110) Don't ask, Don't tell. No anonymous accusations
Marcus Aurelius (177) Stoic, no teachings that lead to fear of the divine, dangerous to Empire.
Septimius Severus (202,210) popular resentment, severe local persecutions, Origen's father, Perpetua and Felicity
Maximinus the Thracian (235) Church leaders targeted.
Decius (250-51) required sacrifice to emperor, certificate of proof, first empire wide persecution of laity, controversy over lapsed Christians (Donatists)
Valerian (257-) Clergy and Senator and ranking public figures required to offer sacrifice.
Diocletian and Galerius: Attempt to unify Empire, restructure, general persecution (303-06).
Edict of Milan (313)
Julian Apostate (361-63) tried to re-establish old Roman gods.
Christians were accused of atheism, incest, cannibalism, being anti-social and immoral, and inventing a new religion.
Crusades (1060 - 1200)
Siege of Antioch (1097)
Pope Urban II calls the First Crusade
Cologne Cathedral
Cathedral at Rheims
Sainte Chapelle -- Paris
Lower Level
Upper Level
St. Francis
St. Dominic
St. Clare
Cluny--Reformed Benedictine Abby, founded by William of Aquitaine as politically independent.
Cistercian Abby--Reform returning to the simplicity and manual labor of the Bendictine Rule (1098).
Pointed Arch
Ribbed Vault
Flying Buttress
Weight Bearing Column
Pointed arch allowed for rectangular or irregular vaults
High pointed spires
Many windows allowing a flood of light into the sactuary.
High vaults express aspirations toward heaven.
Plazzo Strozzi
Courtyard Florence
San Lorenzo
St. Peter's Dome
Tempietto San Pietro
Rome, by Bramante
Commemorates the site
of Peter's Death
Begun in late sixteenth century Italy.
Took the Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical and theatrical fashion
Expressed the triumph of the Catholic Church and the absolutist state.
New explorations of form, light and shadow and dramatic intensity.

Renaissance Archetecture had been a a blend of secular and religious forces

Baroque was primarily religious, directly linked to the Counter-Reformation.
More accessible to the emotions.
Visible statement of the wealth and power of the Church.
Used by new religious orders who aimed to improve popular piety (Jesuits).

The Rococo Basilica at Ottobeuren (Bavaria): architectural spaces flow together and swarm with life
Baroque façade of Santa Susanna by Carlo Maderno
Giacomo della Porta's façade of the Church of the Gesù, a precursor of the Baroque

From early 15th to early 17th centuries in different regions of Europe
Conscious revival of classic Greek and Roman style
First in Florence, quickly spread to other Italian cities.
Later spread throughout Europe.

Emphasis on symmetry, proportion, geometry and regularity
Orderly arrangements of columns, pilasters and lintels
Semicircular arches, hemispherical domes, niches and aedicules (small shrines within a church).
(Medieval used more complex proportional systems and irregular profiles)

Roman Emperor 306 - 337 CE
65 - 90 C.E.
Cluniac Reforms
Purpose of the Reforms
Restoring traditional monastic life
Encouraging art and architecture
Caring for the poor
Free from political and monetary corruption
Church corruption of simony,concubinage, lay investiture
Political corruption as fiefdoms to the feudal lord who was the patron of the monastery

Progress of Reforms
Started at the Benedictine Abby of Cluny in Burgundy.
Sponsored by Guillaume of Aquitaine (William the Pius)
Answer directly to the Pope rather than to the local lord.
St. Odo (c. 878-942) carried out reforms
Spread throughout France and into England, Italy, Spain
Daughter houses were priories answerable to the Abbot of Cluny. The Abbot visited the priories and the priors regularly reported to and came to Cluny.
By 1200, there were more than 1000 monasteries in the Clunaic Order.

Positive Achievements
Greater religious devotion
Supported the Peace of God
Promoted pilgrimages to shrines and the Holy Land
Liturgical development
Polyphonic choral music
Romanesque architecture
Reform of the Papacy and the Church generally

Eventual Trouble
Support for Crusades
Many gold vessels, fine tapestries and fabrics for liturgy
The monasteries become wealthy and powerful and in need of reform which came with the Cistercians.

Vision: Instructed by Christ to establish Corpus Christi.
Instituted in Liege in 1246.
Sactioned it for the Universal Church in 1264, by former archdeacon of Liege, Pope Urban IV.
Thomas Aquinas wrote the Office for the feast.
General increase in devotion to the Sacrament.
Development of the doctrine of Transubstantiation.
Pope Innocent III (1198-1216)
Accepted St. Francis' rule
Asserted papal authority over secular rulers
Strongly opposed lay investure
Called for the Fourth Crusade which ended up sacking Constantinople after previously being excommunicated for sacking a Christian city to pay for their passage on Venetian ships.
Called for a crusade against the Cathars after his representative was murdered.
St. Francis establishing the first Nativity Scene.
Legend: Christ child miraculously appeared in the scene.
Francis provided the ox, the ass, and the crib.
Emphasis on the humanity of Christ, including Christ's suffering.

by Giotto di Bondone
Giotto Nativity at Arena Chapel
Macedonian Icon of Lamentation 1164
Bohemian Pieta (1390)
Michael Angelo: Pieta
Vatican Florence
The Meister Eckhart portal of the Erfurt Church.
"The Light shines in the Darkness and the Darkness has not captured [it]."
Meister Eckhart
"And so, too, I speak of love: he who is held by it is held by the strongest of bonds, and yet the stress is pleasant. Moreover, he can sweetly bear all that happens to him. When one has found this bond, he looks for no other."
"For He can well be loved, but he cannot be thought. By love he can be grasped and held, but by thought, neither grasped nor held. And therefore, though it may be good at times to think specifically of the kindness and excellence of God, and though this may be a light and a part of contemplation, all the same, in the work of contemplation itself, it must be cast down and covered with a cloud of forgetting. And you must step above it stoutly but deftly, with a devout and delightful stirring of love, and struggle to pierce that darkness above you; and beat on that thick cloud of unknowing with a sharp dart of longing love, and do not give up, whatever happens." Cloud of Unknowing
Catherine of Siena was a mystic, has been proclaimed a Doctor of the Church and was actively engaged in trying to end the Avignon Captivity of the Church and Great Western Schism. She had mystical visions starting as a young child and in one she saw herself mystically married to Christ.
"He will provide the way and the means, such as you could never have imagined. Leave it all to Him, let go of yourself, lose yourself on the Cross, and you will find yourself entirely." Letter T316

"You, eternal Trinity, are the craftsman; and I your handiwork have come to know that you are in love with the beauty of what you have made, since you made of me a new creation in the blood of your Son." Dialogue 167.

"O abyss! O eternal Godhead! O deep sea! What more could you have given me than the gift of your very self?" Dialogue 167.

"You are a fire always burning but never consuming; you are a fire consuming in your heat all the soul's selfish love; you are a fire lifting all chill and giving light." Dialogue 167.

"It is only through shadows that one comes to know the light." Prayer 24
Catherine of Siena (1347-80)
"I, or rather the Lord, beseech you as Christ's heralds to publish this everywhere and to pursue all people of whatever rank, foot-soldiers and knights, poor and rich, to carry aid promptly to those Christians and to destroy that vile race from the lands of our friends. I say this to those who are present, it is meant also for those who are absent. Moreover, Christ commands it." Pope Urban II
Pope Urban II (1088-99)
Pope Urban II strongly supported the reforms of his predecessor, Gregory VII, established the Curia as the Vatican Bureaucracy, and called for the First Crusade in response to the pleas of the Byzantine Emperor.
Pope Gregory VII (1073-85)
Champion of Papal Supremacy
Thomas Aquinas (1225-74)
Family expected him to become a Benedictine Monk and one day be an Abbot, adding the monastic lands to the family's holdings.
Decided to join the newly founded Dominican Order and take vows of poverty
Kidnapped by brothers and held captive for two years to change his mind.
Finally released, joined the Dominicans and studied under Albert the Great.
Taught at Cologne and Paris, and wrote extensive commentaries on biblical works, Peter Lombard's Sentences, as well as many systematic expositions of Catholic beliefs.
Thrived on the open forum debates: any topic without advance notice.
Engaged the greatest minds from the Benedictine and Franciscan orders.
He was an accomplished musician .
Many sermons expounding his theology.

Some propositions condemned by the Bishop of Paris during his life and soon after his death.
Mystical experience of Christ caused him to cease work on his Summa Theologicae, saying "All that I have written seems like straw."
Injured while on the way to a council to defend Catholic beliefs from the Greeks in the service of the Pope
Fell ill died while convalescing.
Final prayer "I receive Thee, ransom of my soul. For love of Thee have I studied and kept vigil, toiled, preached and taught..."
He was named a Doctor of the Church in 1567.
Leo XIII named his theology the definitive exposition of Catholic theology and philosophy in 1879.
It became required curriculum at Catholic seminaries.
Thomas Aquinas' Theology
Faith and Reason are Compatible because both are from God, and because God is one.
Reason is able to understand and know God to a degree but imperfectly.
Any statement about God is analogous because human reason is not proportionate to knowing God fully.
He used the method of disputation, presenting statements from Scripture or Church Authority which appear to be in conflict and then working to resolve the conflict.
Aristotle's writings were being reintroduced to the Latin Church by way of the Muslims in Spain and in the Holy Land (after the Crusades). Along with these came commentaries of Muslim and Jewish scholars. St. Thomas was willing to consider the philosophical views of these new sources as well as Plato. He combined these with revealed truths and the writings of the Church Fathers to build a single comprehensive worldview.

Augustine of Hippo
Augustine's mother was Christian and his father was a pagan.
His parents shared an aspiration for his success and sacrificed to send him to the best schools.
He received a simple faith from his mother but found it did not satisfy his deep longings.
He spent many years searching for answers, including the study of philosophy.
Eventually, he became a Manichean to the great distress of his mother.
After over a decade with this group he became disillusioned with them and turned to Neo-Platonism and Plotinus.
Traveling to Milan to continue his studies in rhetoric, he encountered Ambrose of Milan who presented a more intellectual version of Christian faith.
In a profound moment of religious inspiration, he picked up a copy of Paul's letters and read "Not in carousing and drunkenness, not in sexual excess and lust, not in quarreling and jealousy. Rather, put on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make no provision for the desires of the flesh." --Romans 13: 13-14.
He took this as a personal message from God, and converted to Christianity.
After a brief attempt at a secluded life of study and prayer, he was drafted by the Bishop in Hippo to be his assistant.
Later, he succeeds him as Bishop of Hippo.
Augustine's prolific writings have made him the most influential of the Church Fathers in the West. These includes his Confessions, On the Trinity, and the City of God.
During the troubled years of Barbarian invasions, Augustine developed a theory of Just War which allowed Christians to defend themselves in the face of mortal danger.
When the Vandals had laid siege to Hippo and those with means fled the city by sea, Augustine chose to remain to minister to the poor who could not escape.
He died shortly before the city fell.
Augustine's Thought
Augustine was most deeply influenced by St. Paul's writings on grace.
He opposed the Donatists who refused to accept the return of those who had denied their faith under persecution. The issue included the question of whether sacraments administered by a priest or bishop in a state of sin are valid.
He opposed the Pelagians and Semi-Pelagians. Pelagius was concerned that the wealthy converts to Christianity after it became fashionable, should understand that Christian faith made moral demands. They are capable of doing good because God gave them that ability and now requires that they use it. Pelagius' followers denied that the guilt of original sin is passed down.
Augustine countered that humans cannot do any good unless God makes the first movement with a gift of grace. On their own humans are utterly hopeless and mired in Original Sin. From this, Augustine derives his doctrine of double-predestination.
Augustine proposed a psychological analogy for the Trinity: the mind, knowledge, and love.
From this psychological analogy, he derives the notion that the Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son. This is an innovation beyond the Creed affirmed at Nicaea and Constantinople.
In the City of God, Augustine conceived of the Church, not as a community of perfect "saints or angels" but rather as a mixture of the sinful and saintly. It is impossible in this world to sort the one from the other. This conflicts with the thoughts of the Donatists and the Pelagians.
French bible illustration of 1250 depicts Jews (identifiable by the Judenhut, the "Jew hat" men were forced to wear to distinguish them from Christians) being massacred by crusaders during the First Crusade, 1096 CE.
Antisemitism in Art
The "martyrdom" of Anderl, a three year-old boy who became the focus of a blood-libel cult in the seventeenth-century. This was on display in a church in Austria until the 1990"s.
Antisemitism in Art
An alleged desecration of the host by Jews in Sternberg, Germany, in 1492. As a result, 26 Jews were burned. German woodcut, 1492.
Antisemitism in Art
From a 15th-century German woodcut of the supposed host desecration by the Jews of Passau, 1477. The hosts are stolen and pierced in a Jewish ritual; they are recovered, and shown to be holy. The guilty Jews are tortured with hot pincers, then beheaded. The entire community is driven out. In the final panel the Christians kneel and pray.
Antisemitism in Art
Because Jews were less susceptible to the Black Plague than their neighbors (likely the result of Jewish ritual regarding personal hygiene), Jews were accused of poisoning Christian wells, were thought to be the source of the plague. As this image illustrates, Jews were expelled, tortured and murdered for the "crime."
Antisemitism in Art
Inspired by Black Death, Danse Macabre is an allegory on the universality of death and a common painting motif in late-medieval periods.
Antisemitism in Art
Self-flogging to atone for sins.
Disillusionment with the church and governments after the Black Death.
An expression of religious fervor.
Originally associated with pacifism.
Later associated with violence, especially against Jews.
Antisemitism in Art
In 1239 Pope Gregory IX orders the Talmud to be put on trial because it allegedly contains lies. The Talmud is ordered confiscated and burned.
Antisemitism in Art
Jews are seen burning in hell in a medieval German manuscript. The devil is on the right. The inscription on the cauldron reads "Juda," Jews.
Antisemitism in Art
The Feast of Christ's Circumcision
Christ's Circumcision can be viewed as a sign of the Holy Family's obedience to the law, as the first spilling of Christ's redeptive blood and as Christ's willing self-sacrifice on our behalf. As first the Crusades and then the Black Death heated up antisemitism, it came to be portrayed as the first assault on Christ by the Jews.
Panels one and five from Paolo Uccello's Miracle of the Profaned Host. A Jew described as a "moneylender" is represented as cooking the host (holy bread representing the body of Jesus), which emanates blood (see cauldron and under the door). The Jew's wife with unborn child, and the couple's two children look on in fear. the second panel shows the family being burned at the stake for the "crime."
Antisemitism in Art
Matthias Grünewald, The Mocking of Christ, c.1503
Antisemitism in Art
Albrecht Dürer, Christ Among the Doctors (Pharisees), 1506
Antisemitism in Art
Sculpture of The Wittenberg Judensau
Judensau, 1546
Depictions of Jews in contact with pigs, or as representative of the devil, was common in Christian art. The choice of pig is clearly intended to give maximum offense as Jewish dietary laws prohibit eating this animal's flesh.
Antisemitism in Art
On the Jews and their Lies
Martin Luther, 1543
Know Christians that next to the devil thou hast no enemy more cruel, more venomous and violent than a true Jew. What shall we Christians do with this rejected and condemned people, the Jews? I shall give you my sincere advice:

First to set fire to their synagogues or schools and to bury and cover with dirt whatever will not burn, so that no man will ever again see a stone or cinder of them. This is to be done in honor of our Lord and of Christendom, so that God might see that we are Christians, and do not condone or knowingly tolerate such public lying, cursing, and blaspheming of his Son and of his Christians...

Second, I advise that their houses also be razed and destroyed…

Third, I advise that all their prayer books and Talmudic writings, in which such idolatry, lies, cursing and blasphemy are taught, be taken from them…

Fourth, I advise that their rabbis be forbidden to teach henceforth on pain of loss of life and limb...
The Lamentation over the Dead Christ, by Andrea Mantegna, 1490.
Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan.

Fifth, I advise that safe-conduct on the highways be abolished completely for the Jews. For they have no business in the countryside, since they are not lords, officials, tradesmen, or the like. Let they stay at home...

Sixth, I advise that usury be prohibited to them, and that all cash and treasure of silver and gold be taken from them and put aside for safekeeping. The reason for such a measure is that, as said above, they have no other means of earning a livelihood than usury, and by it they have stolen and robbed from us all they possess. Such money should now be used in no other way than the following: Whenever a Jew is sincerely converted, he should be handed one hundred, two hundred, or three hundred florins, as personal circumstances may suggest. With this he could set himself up in some occupation for the support of his poor wife and children, and the maintenance of the old or feeble. For such evil gains are cursed if they are not put to use with God's blessing in a good and worthy cause.

Seventh, I commend putting a flail, an ax, a hoe, a spade, a distaff, or a spindle into the hands of young, strong Jews and Jewesses and letting them earn their bread in the sweat of their brow, as was imposed on the children of Adam (Gen 3[:19]}. For it is not fitting that they should let us accursed Goyim toil in the sweat of our faces while they, the holy people, idle away their time behind the stove, feasting and farting, and on top of all, boasting blasphemously of their lordship over the Christians by means of our sweat. No, one should toss out these lazy rogues by the seat of their pants.

I wish and I ask that our rulers who have Jewish subjects exercise a sharp mercy toward these wretched people… (As) suggested above, to see whether this might not help (though it is doubtful). They must act like a good physician who, when gangrene has set in, proceeds without mercy to cut, saw, and burn flesh, veins, bone, and marrow. Such a procedure must also be followed in this instance. Burn down their synagogues, forbid all that I enumerated earlier, force them to work, and deal harshly with them, as Moses did in the wilderness, slaying three thousand lest the whole people perish. They surely do not know what they are doing; moreover, as people possessed, they do not wish to know it, hear it, or learn it. There it would be wrong to be merciful and confirm them in their conduct. If this does not help we must drive them out like mad dogs, so that we do not become partakers of their abominable blasphemy and all their other vices and thus merit God's wrath and be damned with them. I have done my duty. Now let everyone see to his. I am exonerated."
Antisemitism in Art
Rising Antisemitism
Crusades and the Black Death
Western Schism 1378-1417
John Wycliffe
Avignon Papacy (1309 to 1378)
William of Okham

Spiritual Franciscan
only faith gives us access to theological truths.
The ways of God are not open to reason
God's plan of salvation is not logical or rational
"Our faith is not formed by the wisdom of the Pope.
For no one is bound to believe the Pope in matters which are of the faith, unless he can demonstrate the reasonableness
of what he says by the rule of faith.” from Dialogus
Spiritual Franciscans
Attempt Reform
Thomas a Kempis (1380-1471)
"If thou wilt receive profit, read with humility, simplicity, and faith,
and seek not at any time the fame of being learned."

"I have sought everywhere for peace, but I have found it not
save in a little nook and in a little book."

"At the Day of Judgement we shall not be asked
what we have read, but what we have done."

Devotio Moderna--devotional reading for all
Jan Hus
"God gives His grace to whomever He wishes, and has predestined each individual, an eternity before birth, to be lost or saved through all eternity. Good works do not win salvation, but they indicate that he who does them has received divine grace and is one of the elect. We act according to the disposition that God has allotted to us..."

True Church is invisible; the false Church is only too visible.
No one can know who is saved and who is not.
The Bible available to all Christians in their native tongue.
Rejected Transubstantiation and the Real Presence.
Followers called the Lollards (mumblers of non-sense)
Were suppressed but continue underground.
Advocated frequent reception of Communion by all (even infants) under both species.
Preached against indulgences and crusades--at the time the Western Schism was leading to "crusades" against Christians.
Pomised safe passage, he went to the Council of Constance--where he was arrested, tried and burned at the stake.
The Hussites revolted and formed an independent church which the Catholic Church tried to suppress violently. An uneasy truce was finally reached.
They maintained their practices of using the vernacular and Communion in both species.
Arius (250-336)
Attempt to understand Christian faith using reason.
God is One, Eternal, Indivisible, and Unknowable (Plato)
Christ is known to us through the Gospels.
Therefore, Christ must come after and be other than the Father even if he was created or begotten before all worlds.
The Father is indivisible; The Son was not created of the Father. Therefore, the Son was created out of nothing.
"There was when he was not." A sequence "outside" of time.
The Son is subordinate to the Father and created out of nothing.
"He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation; because by means of him all [other] things were created in the heavens and upon the earth, the things visible and the things invisible." (Col 1:15)
Concerned to present Christian believers with an understanding of Christ as like themselves, immanent.
Council of Nicaea (324)
Constantine endorsed a proposal to affirm that the Son is homoousion (of one substance with) the Father.
This was nearly unanimously accepted at the Council, though the term would be a source of significant problems and controversy subsequently.
Major controversy raged over the choice and meaning of the word, homoousios.
Arius objected to it because it is not biblical and had a Manichean scorn for the created world.
Eusebius of Nicomedia defended Arius, saying "There is one who is unbegotten, and one who is truly begotten of him, but not begotten of his substance, and in no way unbegotten. He was made, totally different in nature and in power, though constituted in a perfect likeness to the nature and power of him who made him. We believe that the manner of his coming to be is not only beyond the power of words to express, but also beyond the capacity of any mind, whether human or superhuman, to grasp in thought. We are not affirming here what we have thought out for ourselves, but what we have learned from scripture.
Athanasius (296-373)
Athanasius proposed an understanding of Homoousios which attempts to avoid the many problems inherent in the term.
First, it musts be understood that the term is used metaphorically. Ordinarily, homoousios would mean "made of the same stuff." Peter and Paul are homoousios (of one substance) because they are both human beings, they are two individuals of the same type of being.
If homoousios is understood within the confines of what can be imagined, then it leads either to the assertion of two gods or to the denial of the distinction between Father and Son. (I.e., the Son is simply a manifestation of the Father.)
Athanasius rejects both of these outcomes. Without having a theoretical framework of a cognitional theory, he turns instead to a concrete and practical rule:
"What is said of the Father is also to be said of the Son, except that the Son is Son and not Father.
Even though the word homoousios is not found in scripture, if understood in this fashion, it is consistent with scriptures:
So, for example, the titles God, Omnipotent, the Lord, the Light, and "Who takes away sins" are all applied in the scriptures to the Son as well as the Father.
This rule embodies and defines a concept which transcends what can be imagined and reaches for understanding of the mystery of the Trinity.
The mystery of the Trinity is beyond what we can image, but not beyond what we can conceive of, though any human conception will be analogous and imperfect.
The Church ultimately rejected a harmonization of the four Gospels in favor of maintaining the distinctiveness of the four Evangelists work.
The Diatesseron was a harmonization by Tatian in the 2nd century.
Established the Order of Preachers
Mendicant order taking vows of poverty
Dedicated to converting others
through learning and preaching.
Deeply involved in the emerging Universities
Combatting heresy by converting their adherents
Primary force in the inquisition.
Rediscovery of Ancient Texts, Archetecture, Technology
Textual Criticism developed to verify historical authenticity. Careful reading and reasoning rather than authority.
Jerome's Vulgate was subjected to textual criticism and found defective in many areas including passages which had been used to justify the doctrine of Purgatory.
New interest in the ancient wisdom preserved in the Corpus Hereticum (magic, medicine, astrology, secret wisdom gnosticism) and the Jewish Mysticism of the Cabbala.
Plato reintroduced in the West by Greek scholars fleeing the Muslim conquest.
Desiderius Erasmus
Siege of Constantinople 1453
The defeat of the Byzantine Empire by the Ottoman's caused a flood of refugees from the East into the West.
German Trade Guild (Alliance)
Venetian Routes
Genoese Routes
Venetian and Genoese Routes
Overland and River Routes
From the Utrecht Psalter. Naturalistic and energetic figurine line drawings were entirely new, and were to become the most influential innovation of Carolinian art in later periods.
Carolingian Miniscule Script
Aachen Gospels
Carolingian Illumination
Drogo Sacramentary, ca. 850: Initial 'C' contains the Ascension of Christ. The text is in gold ink.
Saint Mark from the Ebbo Gospels. Figurine line drawing with colour.
Lorsch Gospels. 778–820. Charlemagne's Court School.
Ivory Book Cover: Reims late 9th century, with two scenes from the life of Saint Remy and the Baptism of Clovis
Carolingian Renaissance
Lorsch Monastery Gate House
The Palatine Chapel in Aachen
Octagon Dome
St. Micheal's Church, Fulda
St. Justinus' church in Frankfurt-Höchst
St. Patrick (c.450- c.500)
Mission to Ireland
Saint Columbanus 540 – 615
Irish Missionary to Franks
and Lombards
Augustine of Canterbury d. 604
Missionary to Britain
Coronation of Pepin the Short
By Boniface, 752, bringing the the Merovingian Dynasty to an end
Muslim troops leaving Narbonne to Pépin the Short in 759,
after 40 years of occupation.
Charles Martel is primarily famous for his victory at the Battle of Tours in 732, his stopping the Umayyad invasions of Europe during the Muslim Expansion Era, and his laying the foundation for the Carolingian Empire.
The Frankish kingdoms at the time of the death of Pepin of Heristal, the great grandfather of Charlemagne. Charles Martel was the Major of the Palace at Arnulfing. Aquitaine (yellow) was outside of Arnulfing authority and Neustria and Burgundy (pink) were united in opposition to further Arnulfing dominance of the highest offices. Only Austrasia (green) supported Charles Martel. The German duchies to the east of the Rhine were de facto outside of Frankish suzerainty at this time.
Clovis' victory at the Battle of Tolbiac, 496. He attributed this victory to the God of his Catholic wife and converted to Catholicism.
Baptism of Clovis after his victory at Tolbiac.
3000 warriors were baptized with him.
Clovis, King of the Franks and Founder of the Merovingian Dynasty
Clovis and the Conversion of the Franks to Catholicism
This page of the Iconodule Chludov Psalter, illustrates the line "They gave me gall to eat; and when I was thirsty they gave me vinegar to drink" with a picture of a soldier offering Christ vinegar on a sponge attached to a pole. Below is a picture of the last Iconoclast Patriarch of Constantinople, John VII rubbing out a painting of Christ with a similar sponge attached to a pole. John is caricatured, here as on other pages, with untidy straight hair sticking out in all directions, which was meant to portray him as wild and barbaric.
Russian illuminated psalter, the Chludov Psalter, with anti-iconoclast illustrations.
Byzantine Emperor Nikephoros I upholding an icon and trampling
John VII of Constantinople. Chludov Psalter.

Irish Monastic Cell, c. 500
St. Mullins Abby, c632
Inishmurray, Co. Sligo
Developed independently, 8th & 9th Centuries
Circle connects arms with shaft
Stepped-pyramid or conical base.
Highly decorated, earliest with spirals and interlacings.
Later, biblical scenes with Celtic edging.

Muiredach’s Cross at Monasterboice, Co. Louth
famous example of this (On left).

May have been brightly painted
Likely used as teaching or preaching instruments.
Likely public monuments rather than grave markers.
May have served as boundary markers as many of them are evenly situated around the outer edges of the monastic enclosure (Herity 1995).
Monastaries in Ireland and Britain Preserve Christian Traditions
Pope Leo I
Pope Leo I negotiates with Attila the Hun (452)
* Rome
* Constantinople
* Alexandria
* Antioch
* Jerusalem
Patriarch of the Church 500 CE
Roman Government Hall
The monastic impulse arose out of a desire to maintain the purity of Christian spirituality after the end of the persecutions. The two forms it took are those of the hermit living alone in the wilderness and the monk living in community.
Apollinarius condemned by Council of Constantinople (381) for teaching that Christ did
not have a rational human soul but only a human body
which then is deified.

Nestorius of Constantinople is condemned by Council of Ephesus (431) for teaching that there were
two separate persons
in Christ, one human and the other divine and for denying the appropriateness of Theotokos as a title for Mary.

Robber Synod of Ephesus (449) asserts that there were
two natures before the union but only one divine nature after the union
. The human had been subsumed. Leo I Tome was ignored by the Council.

Leo I and the Council of Chalcedon (451) affirm that one and the same Christ, Son, Lord, Only -Begotten, made known in two natures without confusion, change, division, or separation, the properties of each nature having been preserved, concurring into one person (prosopon) and one hypostasis. (Hypostatic Union)

Chalcedon also stated in Canon 28 that Constantinople is equal in status to Rome because of its relationship with the imperial court. Leo strongly objected to this canon and it was not promulgated.
St. Benedict (480-547)
Monte Cassino Destroyed and Restored
Monte Cassino Church Facade
St. Benedict
Influenced by John Cassian and the Rule of the Master
Rule focuses on obedience, worship, and labor
Simple rules are very flexible and adaptable
Monasteries are independent, adding to the flexibility.
A Desert Father who later founded a monastic community at Marselle in southern Gaul. He had a great influence on St. Benedict and St. Ignatius of Loyola. His writings focus on the challenges of asceticism and spiritual life and stress moral virtues. This later theme sparked the Semi-Pelagian controversy with St. Augustine and others but Cassian was never directly involved in these and was acknowledged as a saint by the Council of Orange which condemned semi-Pelagian views. (The notion that sometimes the human will can begin the process of conversion without the direct aid of God's grace.)
Saint John Cassian (ca. 360 – 435)
Development of Institutional Church
In response to the challenges of the diversity of ideas and practices associated with Christian faith, including many which are ultimately rejected as heresy.

Canon of Scripture
Authority (Apostolic, Episcopal)
Cluny Abby
Faversham Abby
1400 CE
1200 CE
1000 CE
800 CE
600 CE
400 CE
200 CE
Charlemagne was initially inclined to support the iconoclasts. The Pope convinced him not to do so and his opposition to iconoclasm stirred resentment between his new kingdom and the Byzantines. Because the Byzantine's had significant holdings in the West, the iconoclast movement threatened to spill over into the West. Charlemagne's proposed marriage to the Iconophile Empress Irene was her downfall.
In the New Testament Era
Church communities had either an individual episcopoi (bishop) or a council of presbytrs. Though these terms lacked definitive usage and were sometimes both applied to the same person.
Jerusalem and Antioch seemed to have had a hierarchical structure of episcopos (presider/overseer), presbyteroi (elders), and deaconoi.
The Pauline Churches in Greece and Asia minor had a more flexible and sometimes fluid structure. This came to include two types of leadership. The local leadership of episcopoi and presbyters, and the mobile leadership of Apostles and prophets.
Gradually (by 200 CE), these varied patterns seemed to have moved toward the familiar structure of bishop, priest, and permanent deacon. There is no record of controversy over this development.
Early Controversies
Arianism: Christ is a Creature, not God
Athanasius rule, psychological analogy
The Son (Logos) is essentially divine:
not produced by a decision of the Father
but exists because of the very essence of God.
Why: because if Christ is not truly divine,
then we are not truly reconciled with God.
Pelagianism: Human's can be righteous without God's help
God's grace moves us, calls us, sustains us.
Why: Otherwise, do not need Christ for salvation.
Christological Controversy: two separate natures or
one blended, commingled, subsumed
two distinct but truly united, not diminished or changed (compromise)
Why: What is not assumed is not saved but
they must be truly and fully united or we are not reconciled.
A Carthusian Charterhouse might best be described, paradoxically, as a community of hermits. There are no abbeys and each house is headed by a prior and is populated by choir monks, referred to as hermits, and lay brothers.

Each hermit — that is, a monk who is or who will be a priest — has his own living space, called a cell, usually consisting of a small dwelling.

The hermit spends most of his day in the cell: he meditates, prays the minor hours of the Liturgy of the Hours on his own, eats, studies and writes, and works in his garden or at some manual trade. Unless required by other duties, the Carthusian hermit leaves his cell daily only for three prayer services in the monastery chapel, including the community Mass, and occasionally for conferences with his superior. Additionally, once a week, the community members take a long walk in the countryside during which they may speak; on Sundays and feast days a community meal is taken in silence. Twice a year there is a day-long community recreation, and the monk may receive an annual visit from immediate family members.
St. Bruno, Founder of the Carthusian Order of hermetic monks.
Carthusian Order
Never reformed because never deformed.
St. Vincent of Lerins
d. 445
Now in the Catholic Church itself we take the greatest care to hold that which has been believed everywhere, always and by all. That is truly and properly 'Catholic,' as is shown by the very force and meaning of the word, which comprehends everything almost universally. We shall hold to this rule if we follow universality [i.e. oecumenicity], antiquity, and consent. We shall follow universality if we acknowledge that one Faith to be true which the whole Church throughout the world confesses; antiquity if we in no wise depart from those interpretations which it is clear that our ancestors and fathers proclaimed; consent, if in antiquity itself we keep following the definitions and opinions of all, or certainly nearly all, bishops and doctors alike.
From Chapter 4 of The Commonitory (aka The Commitorium), AD 434

[ed. Moxon, Cambridge Patristic Texts] *

(1) I have continually given the greatest pains and diligence to inquiring, from the greatest possible number of men outstanding in holiness and in doctrine, how I can secure a kind of fixed and, as it were, general and guiding principle for distinguishing the true Catholic Faith from the degraded falsehoods of heresy. And the answer that I receive is always to this effect; that if I wish, or indeed if anyone wishes, to detect the deceits of heretics that arise and to avoid their snares and to keep healthy and sound in a healthy faith, we ought, with the Lord's help, to fortify our faith in a twofold manner, firstly, that is, by the authority of God's Law, then by the tradition of the Catholic Church.

(2) Here, it may be, someone will ask, Since the canon of Scripture is complete, and is in itself abundantly sufficient, what need is there to join to it the interpretation of the Church? The answer is that because of the very depth of Scripture all men do not place one identical interpretation upon it. The statements of the same writer are explained by different men in different ways, so much so that it seems almost possible to extract from it as many opinions as there are men. Novatian expounds in one way, Sabellius in another, Donatus in another, Arius, Eunomius and Macedonius in another, Photinus, Apollinaris and Priscillian in another, Jovinian, Pelagius and Caelestius in another, and latterly Nestorius in another. Therefore, because of the intricacies of error, which is so multiform, there is great need for the laying down of a rule for the exposition of Prophets and Apostles in accordance with the standard of the interpretation of the Church Catholic.

(3) Now in the Catholic Church itself we take the greatest care to hold that which has been believed everywhere, always and by all. That is truly and properly 'Catholic,' as is shown by the very force and meaning of the word, which comprehends everything almost universally. We shall hold to this rule if we follow universality [i.e. oecumenicity], antiquity, and consent. We shall follow universality if we acknowledge that one Faith to be true which the whole Church throughout the world confesses; antiquity if we in no wise depart from those interpretations which it is clear that our ancestors and fathers proclaimed; consent, if in antiquity itself we keep following the definitions and opinions of all, or certainly nearly all, bishops and doctors alike.

(4) What then will the Catholic Christian do, if a small part of the Church has cut itself off from the communion of the universal Faith? The answer is sure. He will prefer the healthiness of the whole body to the morbid and corrupt limb. But what if some novel contagion try to infect the whole Church, and not merely a tiny part of it? Then he will take care to cleave to antiquity, which cannot now be led astray by any deceit of novelty. What if in antiquity itself two or three men, or it may be a city, or even a whole province be detected in error? Then he will take the greatest care to prefer the decrees of the ancient General Councils, if there are such, to the irresponsible ignorance of a few men. But what if some error arises regarding which nothing of this sort is to be found? Then he must do his best to compare the opinions of the Fathers and inquire their meaning, provided always that, though they belonged to diverse times and places, they yet continued in the faith and communion of the one Catholic Church; and let them be teachers approved and outstanding. And whatever he shall find to have been held, approved and taught, not by one or two only but by all equally and with one consent, openly, frequently, and persistently, let him take this as to be held by him without the slightest hesitation.

Translation taken from Internet Ancient History Sourcebook. These documents were compiled by Paul Halsall. Also, check out a complete version of St. Vincent's Commonitory.

Peace of God and Truce of God
In the years approaching 1000 and 1033 (a century after Christ’s death), a series of popular councils were held often organized by priests or monks. At these, the saints, present through their relics, were called upon as witnesses to oaths of peace made by members of the warrior class and sometimes peasants as well. Treaties emerged from this movement which increasingly called for immunity for non-combatants and the live stock and produce needed for survival. Early on, the Clunaic Monasteries were active in promoting these ideas. Eventually, another means of restricting war gained prominence: the Truce of God. At its peak, this prohibited military action from Thursday through Sunday and on Holy Days. Later, the restrictions were specifically against killing Christians, paving the way for crusades and pogroms against Muslims and Jews.
Peace of God
After 1000 CE, Europe experienced a period of significant cooling. This resulted in a reduction in the available food supply. It was the peasant class which was most deeply impacted by the nutritional deficits because the ruling classes continued to receive the best of the available food.
Little Ice Age
Humanist reformer
Celebrity Author
Criticized clerical abuse
Advocated reason over authority
He refused to join Martin Luther.
Remained in the Catholic Church
John Clavin (1509-64)
Stressed the absolute sovereignty of God and developed a theory of double predestination. In the Institutes of the Christian Religion, he lays out his view of orthodox Christian faith and the structure of an ideal and orderly Christian society. He strove for a middle ground between the extremes represented by Luther and Zwingly. He held no official office but his ideas became the law in Geneva.Stressed the absolute sovereignty of God
Peasants Revolt
Baroque Architecture
Renounce all property and embrace simplicity and absolute poverty.
Originally called Zelanti (Zealots) who favored strict adherence to the rule of St. Francis.
Separate from the Relaxanti (later known as Cenventuals) who favored the more relaxed requirements established for the order under Pope Honorius.
Suppressed in 1317 by Pope John XXII (Second Avignon Pope).
Papal Infallibility first proposed by Conventual Franciscans to make this permanent: that is to prevent future popes from reversing the suppression of the Spirituals.
Claim that John XXII was not a legitimate Pope because he suppressed the pure and simple Gospel of the Rule of St. Francis..
Pope Clement V chose to remain in Papal residence at Avignon in southern France.
Boarders on Italy; Relatively independent of the French Monarchy
Ongoing political controversies with French Monarchy.
More freedom from the political intrigues of Rome
Protection from the Holy Roman Emperor
Subject to more interference from the French Monarchy.
Increasingly centralized bureaucracy
Most efficient tax collector in Europe.
Taxes from bishops and church officials.
Contribute to accusations of corruption.
Move back to Rome connected to the Great Schism
One (invalid) line of the Popes continued at Avignon.
Humanist reformer who remained within the Catholic Church. Erasmus criticized clerical abuse, advocated the use of reason over obedience to authority, published a critical edition of the New Testament in parallel Greek and Latin texts, correcting many mistakes in Jerome's Vulgate. He applied the new critical scholarship to the New Testament texts and the Churches traditional interpretations of it. He refused to join Martin Luther in his Evangelical Revolt.

Critical edition of the New Testament in parallel Greek and Latin texts
Correcting many mistakes in Vulgate.
He applied critical scholarship to the New Testament texts
Questioned Church's traditional interpretations.
Renaissance Architecture
Council of Trent (1545-1563)
Reforms aimed to curb clerical abuse, including simony, nepotism, and secular control of church offices.
Defended the practice of indulgences but reformed their use.
The Council was not definitive regarding the relationship of papal authority to that of bishops because there was no consensus regarding this issue.
Promoted Uniformity in Liturgy and Catechism
Enforcement of Celibacy
Defended Papal Authority and the Authority of Tradition as well as Scripture
St. Ignatius of Loyola
Founder of the Society of Jesus
The East–West Schism of 1054
Relations embittered by political, ecclesiastical, and theological disputes.
Filioque (Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son)
Leavened (East) or unleavened bread (West) in Eucharist
Pope's claim to universal jurisdiction
Place of Constantinople in the Pentarchy (Ecumenical Patriarch)
Convened the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215
Established standards for priestly pastoral ministry,
Rrequired all Christians to recieve penance and the Eucharist once a year
Asserted the fittingness of the doctrive of Transubstantiation
Placed many restrictions on Jews, included the requirement of wearing a yellow star.
St. Juliana of Liege
Pope Benedict XVI
2005 - 2013
Pope Francis
2013 - Present
347 420
Scholar, Monk, Polemicist
cir. 296 - 373
354 - 430
Cir. 388-459
Accordingly while the distinctness of both natures and substances was preserved, and both met in one Person, lowliness was assumed by majesty, weakness by power, mortality by eternity;
and, in order to pay the debt of our condition, the inviolable nature was united to the passible, so that as the appropriate remedy for our ills, one and the same “Mediator between God and man, the Man Christ Jesus,” might from one element be capable of dying and also from the other be incapable.
Therefore in the entire and perfect nature of very man was born very God, whole in what was his, whole in what was ours.
By “ours” we mean what the Creator formed in us at the beginning and what he assumed in order to restore; for of that which the deceiver brought in, and man, thus deceived, admitted, there was not a trace in the Savior; and the fact that he took on himself a share in our infirmities did not make him a partaker in our transgressions. He assumed “the form of a servant” without the defilement of sin, enriching what was human, not impairing what was divine: because that “emptying of himself,” whereby the Invisible made himself visible, and the Creator and Lord of all things willed to be one among mortals, was a stooping down in compassion, not a failure of power. Accordingly, the same who, remaining in the form of God, made man, was made man in the form of a servant.
For each of the natures retains its proper character without defect; and as the form of God does not take away the form of a servant, so the form of a servant does not impair the form of God.
Leo's Tome
Later, Leo convinces the Vandals to limit murder and arson during their sacking of Rome. (455)
Asserts Universal Papal Supremacy
Aquitaine (yellow) was outside of the influence of the Arnulfing dynasty. Pepin Heristal served as Mayor of the Palace in Austrasia (green). Through military victories, he subdued Neustria and Burgundy (pink) and became de facto ruler of all of the Franks. Charles Martel was his son through a mistress but had greater support because of his military prowess. He defeated the Muslim advance at Tours. Martel ruled as Duke and Prince of the Franks. His son, Pepin the short ruled as King of the Franks. Martel's grandson, Charlemagne, would rule as Holy Roman Emperor.
(Charles Martel)
X 732
Expansion of Islam
Clovis (481 - 511) Marovingian Dynasty

Pepin of Heristal (687-714)
{Mayor of Palace}
Charles Martel (the Hammer) (715 - 741)
{Mayor of Palace, Duke and Prince of the Franks}
Defeats Muslims at Tours/Poitiers (732)
Pepin the Short (741 - 768)
{King of the Franks}
Charlemagne (768 - 814)
{King of the Franks, Holy Roman Emperor}
Khan Academy: Charlemagne: Political History
Khan Academy: Carolingian Renaissance
Westwork at Covey Abby
Pope St. Gregory the Great
Servant of the Servants of the Poor
Relief for the Poor
"The wealth (of the Church) belongs to the poor.
Establishes Monasteries
Liturgical Reforms
Prolific Writer--Doctor of the Church
Sent Augustine of Canterbury as missionary to England
"Gregorian Chant" is named after him but developed centuries later.
The Donation of Pepin (756) was confirmed by Charlemagne and subsequent Frankish Rulers.
The Clunaic Monastic
Order built great Churches
and assisted Christian pilgrims, especially on their way to visit the relics of St. James the Apostle in Santiago de Compostela. Such pilgrimages made religious experiences and holiness available to all. This site had associations with fighting the Muslims and later with the Crusades.
"O God, by whose grace thy servants, the Holy Abbots of Cluny, enkindled with the fire of thy love, became burning and shining lights in thy Church: Grant that we also may be aflame with the spirit of love and discipline, and may ever walk before thee as children of light; through Jesus Christ our Lord, who with thee, in the unity of the Holy Spirit, liveth and reigneth, one God, now and for ever."
Synod of Trosle (909)
"The cities are depopulated, the monasteries ruined and burned, the country reduced to solitude ... as the first men lived without law or fear of God, abandoned to their passions, so now every man does what seems good in his own eyes, despising laws human and divine and the commands of the Church. The strong oppress the weak; the world is full of violence against the poor and of the plunder of ecclesiastical goods. ... Men devour one another like the fishes in the sea."
Both the papacy and the Empire become weak. The papacy is controlled by the competing ruling families of Rome and is an instrument of local politics. It is subject to political and moral corruption and is spiritually bankrupt. No one considers the claims to papal supremacy. For a century no emperor is crowned.
The Empire is revived when Pope John XII crowned Otto the Great (962). Within a few years, Otto removed John XII and appointed a new pope. For the next century, popes were required to take an oath of allegiance to the emperor. The control of the papacy by the emperors came to a climax when the Emperor Henry III deposed three claimants to the Papacy in 1046. He appoints 4 of the next 5 popes.
Absolving Henry IV
His efforts lay the ground work for achieving these ends, though his own success was limited.
Church Reforms
Gregory VII fought to:
End Simony
End lay investiture
Enforce Clerical Celibacy
Papal control of appointment and reassignment of bishops
Papal election by college of cardinals, rather than Imperial appointment or political intrigue
First as a Cardinal and later as Pope was involved in the controversy over the developing doctrine of transubstantiation with Berengar of Tours. He was at first sympathetic with Berengar's theological inquiry but in the end required his retraction.
The great drama with Henry IV began with the lay investiture. Gregory VII excommunicated Henry IV three times in the ordeal. Henry lost the throne and his life but Gregory also died in exile from Rome with the Papacy in the hands of the anti-pope, Clement III.
Gregory VII was a man of great conviction, energy and integrity.
Dictatus papae
"The pope can be judged by no one; the Roman church has never erred and never will err till the end of time; the Roman church was founded by Christ alone; the pope alone can depose and restore bishops; he alone can make new laws, set up new bishoprics, and divide old ones; he alone can translate bishops; he alone can call general councils and authorize canon law; he alone can revise his judgments; his legates, even though in inferior orders, have precedence over all bishops; an appeal to the papal courts inhibits judgment by all inferior courts; a duly ordained pope is undoubtedly made a saint by the merits of St. Peter." Pope Gregory VII
Pope Alexander III (1159 - 1181)
Emperor Frederick Barbarossa submits to Alexander III
There was a history of conflict and opposition between Alexander III and the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa preceding his election as Pope. As Alexander had opposed Frederick's election, so Frederick opposed Alexander's and backed a series of anti-popes. Gradually, Alexander gained the backing of other monarchs, including those of France, England (Henry II), and Hungary.
Emperor Frederick Barbarossa planned to subjugate Italy and suppress the Lombard League. Alexander III opposed this and gained the support of major European powers. Frederick Barbarossa was defeated in battle and submitted to the Pope.
When King Henry II of England planned to restore royal control over the Church in England, he had his own conflict with Alexander III. Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, supported the Pope's authority over the Church, resulting first in exile then in his murder. Outrage over this forced Henry II to relent and submit in obedience to Alexander III.
Pope Innocent III (1198 - 1216)
Canon Law and Fourth Lateran Council
Raise standards of lay and clerical behavior
Annual confession and reception of Eucharist
Asserted fittingness of Doctrine of Transubstantiation
Conditions for valid election of bishops
Qualifications for admission of clergy
Regulate clerical dress and recreation
Banned clerical involvement in judicial ordeal (torture)
Reform of Curia (Papal Court / Bureaucracy)
Prohibit Jews from holding public office (blasphemers), required wearing a gold star
Fourth Crusade
Albigensian Crusade
Fifth Crusade
Franciscan Order
Dominican Order
Hospital de Santo Spiritu
Fourth Lateran Council
Church Reforms
Raised the Papacy to its highest level of spiritual and temporal authority.
Spiritual authority is to the temporal authority as the sun is to the moon.
Pope is the Vicar of Christ
Holy Roman Emperor
Dispute between Otto and Philip.
Innocent back Otto; Philip was murdered.
Otto invades papal states.
Innocent backs Frederick II of Sicily, his own ward, as Emperor.
Frederick with France's aid, defeats Otto and England.
Dispute over Appointment of Archbishop of Canterbury
King John of England tried to impose his own choice.
Innocent placed England under interdict: limited religious services.
Threatened invasion with King Philip of France forced King John to relent.
Philip of France
Rejects his wife
Innocent refuses annulment
Forces him to acknowledge her
Live as husband and wife
A Darker Legacy
Constructed 1075-1211
Legend that the relics of St. James were transported here by boat form Jerusalem.
Justin Martyr
Emphasize full humanity and divinity
Literal (plane sense) or historical interpretation of scripture.
Assert unity but difficulty giving full account.
Christ must have human soul--scriptural stories.
Optimistic about human nature, moral growth.

What is not assumed is not saved.
This is neither human (mere body) or divine (limitations).

Theodore of Mopsuestia: perfect obedience of
Christ's human will: salvific. (tempation, Gethsemane)
Moral Unity: love and loving obedience
not "ousia" but "prosopon"

Nestorius: conjuction or union of wills, not natures
Theotokos only if also Anthrotokos: better Christotokos
Emphasis on divinity and unity.
Allegorical interpretation of scripture
Assert humanity but difficulty giving coherent account.
Christ cannot have a human soul without dividing him.
Pessimistic about human nature and moral growth.

Athanasius: True subject in Christ is divine Logos.
A human soul would divide Christ (two subjects)
Divine Logos assumes limitations.

Apollinariuis: Christ's humanity is only his flesh
Divine Logos deifies the flesh (Eucharist).
Christ accepts human limitations but gradually
"lifts veil" as he grows in wisdom.

Ephesus 449 (Robber Council)
Two natures before union, one nature after; Commingling, deification, (divine absorbs human)
Book of Kells Late 8th - 9th Century Christ Enthroned
Latin Texts
Ireland’s High Crosses

c. 650
c. 717
Monophysite: One Nature--Divine
Monothelite: One Will, Pope Honorius (625-28)
Miaphysite: Human & Divine united in one nature, without separation, confusion, alteration
Non-Chalcedonians (Armenian, Syriac, Coptic)
Ecumenical dialogs
Donation of Constantine

Pseudo-Isidore: Canon Law
95 Theses: Disputation on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences

Out of love and concern for the truth, and with the object of eliciting it, the following heads will be the subject of a public discussion at Wittenberg under the presidency of the reverend father, Martin Luther, Augustinian, Master of Arts and Sacred Theology, and duly appointed Lecturer on these subjects in that place. He requests that whoever cannot be present personally to debate the matter orally will do so in absence in writing.

6. The pope himself cannot remit guilt but only declare and confirm that it has been remitted by God.

21. Hence those who preach indulgences are in error when they say that a man is absolved and saved from every penalty by the pope's indulgences.

24. It must therefore be the case that the major part of the people are deceived by that indiscriminate and high-sounding promise of relief from penalty.

25. The same power as the pope exercises in general over purgatory is exercised in particular by every single bishop in his bishopric and priest in his parish.

27. There is no divine authority for preaching that the soul flies out of the purgatory immediately the money clinks in the bottom of the chest.

30 No one is sure of the reality of his own contrition, much less of receiving plenary forgiveness.

32. All those who believe themselves certain of their own salvation by means of letters of indulgence, will be eternally damned together with their teacher.

33. We should be most carefully on our guard against those who say that the papal indulgences are an inestimable divine gift ant that a man is reconciled to God by them.

36. Any Christian whatsoever, who is truly repentant, enjoys plenary remission from penalty and guilt, and this is given him without letters of indulgence.

37. Any true Christian whatsoever, living or dead, participates in all the benefits of Christ and the Church, and this participation is granted to him by God without letters of indulgence.

40. A truly contrite sinner seeks out, and loves to pay, the penalties of his sins, whereas the very multitude of indulgences dulls men's consciences, and tends to make them hate the penalties.

41. Papal indulgences should only be preached with caution, lest people gain a wrong understanding, and think that they are preferable to other good works, those of love.

42. Christians should be taught that the pope does not at all intend that the purchase of indulgences should be understood as at all comparable with the works of mercy.

43.Christians should be taught that one who gives to the poor, or lends to the needy, does a better action than if he purchases indulgences.

44. Because, by works of love, love grows and a man becomes a better man, whereas, by indulgences, he does not become a better man, but only escapes certain penalties.

45. Christians should be taught that he who sees a needy person, but passes him by although he gives money indulgences, gains no benefit from the pope's pardon, but only incurs the wrath of God.
50. Christians would be taught that, if the pope knew the exactions of the indulgence-preachers, he would rather the church of St. Peter were reduced to ashes than be built with the skin, flesh, and bones of the sheep.

51. Christians should be taught that the pope would be willing, as he ought if necessity should arise, to sell the church of St. Peter, and give, too, his own money to many of those from whom the pardon-merchants conjure money.

67. The indulgences, which the merchants extol at the greatest favors, are seen to be, in fact, a favorite means for money getting.

71. Let him be anathema and accursed who denies the apostolic character of the indulgences.

72. On the other hand, let him be blessed who is on his guard against the wantonness and license of the pardon-merchant's words.

73. In the same way, the pope rightly excommunicates those who make any plans to the detriment of the trade in indulgences.

74. It is much more in keeping with this views to excommunicate those who use the pretext of indulgences to plot anything to the detriment of holy love and truth.

82. They ask, e.g., Why does not the pope liberate everyone from purgatory for the sake of love (a most holy thing) and because of the supreme necessity of their souls? This would be morally the best of all reasons. Meanwhile he redeems innumerable souls for money, a post perishable thing, with which to build St. Peter's church, a very minor purpose.
Cathedral School and Universities
Preparatory Liberal Arts
Theology, Law, Medicine
Tetzle's Indulgences
Papacy: Raising money for rebuilding St. Peter's
Archbishop: Raising Money to Pay debts from fees for his appointment.
Bankers Finance the Archbishop's appointment
Pope Pius IX
Michaelangelo (1475-1564)

Three Schools of Thought

Franciscans (Bonaventure): faith not pagan philosophy
"Augustinian," mystical

Dominicans (Thomas Aquinas): faith and reason
great synthesis

Latin Averoist: double truth, remain in liberal arts
reason without the assumptions of faith
Condemned after his death by three local bishops
Revived as response to Protestant Reformation and again to Modern (Enlightenment) Philosophy
St. Thomas discovered the best analogy for understanding the Trinity within the workings of the human mind. When we have an act of understanding or insight in which we grasp the answer to a question, there proceeds immediately and spontaneously, an inner word or idea which expresses what we have understood. The insight is momentary but the idea or understanding coming from it is lasting. The two are distinct but inseparable. The idea is the perfect expression of what has been grasped in the act of understanding. This procession of an idea from an insight is the best analogy we can have for the procession of the Son (Word) from the Father.
From this central insight, St. Thomas derived his Trinitarian Theology and his Christology. These along with his confidence in the compatibility of faith and reason form the core of his theology.
Developed theory of Transubstantiation of the Eucharist introduced by his mentor, Albert the Great.
Strong supporter of the feast of the Corpus Christi.
Mysticism: seeking experience of God, seeking unity with God

Via Negativa: must move beyond sensory experience, imagination, reason, and language
expressed in negative statements or paradoxes.
"God is not hate." "God is not love."

Via Positiva: positively describes God's transcendent qualities: omniscient, omnipotent,
omnipresent; God is love.
Using images or even experiences to lead one to God. Francis: creche, nature
"In beautiful things, Francis saw beauty itself." "Footprints of God in creation."
The Making of Modernity

Exploration & Conquest: multicultural world
Reformation: different religious beliefs
Modern nation state (vs Christendom)
Scientific method: Copernicus, Galileo, Newton
Historical method: skepticism regarding sources
Descartes: turn to the subject, understanding self,
consciousness, experience, reason
Enlightenment: rejecting all authority
Liberalism: economic: free market
political: democracy
intellectual: free thought, press
Vatican Council I
Gallicanism, Counciliarism
Need for protection of priests and bishops
from secular control (Concordats, stipends)
60 bishops left without voting, most later submitted
Concern for further isolating Catholics in modern
world, siege mentality
Schism of Old Catholics
Politics: Franco-Prussian War, French troops withdraw, Garibaldi moves to unify Italy
"Prisoner of the Vatican"
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