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Tropfsteinhöhlen

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Julia Hulin

on 6 July 2015

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Transcript of Tropfsteinhöhlen

Caves
Presentation by Julia Hulin 07.07.15 AG Sedimentologie
How solution caves form?
Types of caves
What is a cave?
Cave Features
- Natural opening in the ground

- extending beyond zone of light

- large enough for man to enter


Lava caves
Corrosion caves

Glacier caves
Physical erosion

Formed by action of water and wind
(joint or fault needed)

- most spectacular in granitoid rocks
Solution caves

Bedrock dissolved by natural acid in groundwater
(bedding-planes, faults, joints)

- H2CO3 (Karst)
-> Stalactites, Stalagmites

Hydrogen sulfide dissolution in Lechuguilla Cave, New Mexico
Ogof Craig a Ffynnon Cave, South Wales
Wind Cave with large Sanddune on the left-hand
Hard Rock erosional cave, granitoid rock, wester USA
-> Primary Caves

Formed through volcanic activity

- Lava flows
- surface cools and solidifies
- hot liquid lava flows under crust out
Lava tube in Hawaii
Lava Beds National Monument, California
curbs on the wall mark former flow leves
Formed within the ice of a glacier, through:

- melt water running through/under the glacier

- geothermal heat from volcanic vents


-> Ice cave: natural cave that contains significant amounts of year-round ice


Glacier cave in south central Iceland,
excavated by a hot spring
Ice cave, Eisriesenwelt in Salzburg, Austria
Largest ice cave in the world (42 km)


- H2SO4 (from below)
-> H2S gas rises, mixes with groundwater
Analogies on Mars
Vielen Dank für eure Aufmerksamkeit!


Study of caves: SPELEOLOGY


Karst Ecosystems, Common types of karst and processes responsible for forming a variety of caves (Modified from White and Culver, 2000)
Full transcript