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The Atom

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Robert Nelson

on 8 July 2016

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Transcript of The Atom

The Atom

Nelson's Rules!
1. The
atomic number
of a neutrally charged element atom is equal to the number of
and number of
2. The
number of neutrons
in the nucleus of an atom is equal to the
rounded (
to the nearest whole number
) atomic mass
minus the
atomic number
Atomic Mass Units
1. Also known as the Atomic Weight.
2. The A.M.U. or atomic weight is the result of the number of protons being added to the number of neutrons.
3. The mass on the periodic table is an average.
4. The average of all the isotopes of the element makes up the A.M.U.
1. Elements are placed on the periodic table by the number of protons in their atoms.
2. All elements with the same atomic number have the same number of protons.
3. However, they
do not
have to have the same number of neutrons.
4. Isotopes are atoms with the
same atomic number (number of p+)
, but, have
different number of neutrons
5. So they have different masses.
You should now be able to...
1. be able to calculate the number protons, neutron and electrons in an atom.
2. be able to calculate the mass of an atom.
3. to describe or draw a picture of an isotope.
4. compare and contrast the 4 nuclear forces.
5. be able to draw and label a non-charged atom.
This is where the electrons are located.
1. Electrons travel around the nucleus.
2. Sometimes considered to be in energy levels or shells.
3. Actually are in clouds that are in various shapes.
4. Electrons that are farthest from the nucleus are called
Valence Electrons
5. Valence Electrons are responsible for the chemical reactivity of the atom.
The Electron Cloud
The Nucleus
1. Has a positive (+) charge.
2. Contains the neutrons (n0) and protons (p+).
3. Protons and neutrons have about the same mass.
4. The nucleus is considered to have the total mass of the atom.
5. Neutrons are the "glue" that keep the nucleus together.
Forces in Atoms
Atoms are made of smaller particles that interact and are affected by forces.
These forces are....
1. Gravitational Force
2. Electromagnetic Force
3. Strong Force
4. Weak Force
Energy Levels or Shells
1. Each energy level or shell can only hold so many electrons.
2. There is one energy level /cloud per layer of the periodic table.
3. So the farther down the periodic table you go, the more energy levels or clouds there are.
A fourth period atom would have 4 levels or
4. The innermost energy level or closest to the nucleus, can hold only 2 electrons.
5. The outermost or valence level/shell can only hold up to 8 electrons
Isotope Differences
1. The only difference between isotopes is the number of neutrons.
2. Isotopes of the same element react the same in chemical reactions.
3. Because of the different number of neutrons, some atoms are unstable.
unstable atoms break down and are radioactive.
Strong Force
1. Stronger than the electromagnetic force
2. Due to the small distances, the strong force keeps the nucleus together.
Weak Force
1. Plays a role in the decay of an atom.
2. Helps change a neutron into a proton and electron.
Strong and Weak Force
Gravitational and Electromagnetic Forces.
Gravitational Force
1. Acts between all objects all the time.
2. Depends on the mass of the objects.
3. The force pulls objects towards each other.
Electromagnetic Force
1. Opposite charges attract each other.
2. Similar charges repel each other.
3. The electrons orbit the protons.
Full transcript