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Books

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Eunice Anne Narvadez

on 22 July 2015

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Transcript of Books

Then and Now: Importance of Books
Time Travel: Books
A short history of books
in the Western world and in the Philippines
BOOKS
The Cultural Value of the Book
Books
were the first mass medium and are, in some ways, the most personal.
Books
are repositories of our pasts and agents of personal development and social change.
Books
are printed or written literary work.
Books
are important storehouse of human knowledge; originated in humanity's effort to make permanent what oral tradition could not adequately preserve.
It has preserved our culture, and still remains as repository of our history.


Books: The First Mass Medium
Then and Now: Importance of Books
Sharpening and developing certain skills, such as reading comprehension, communication, phonetics and interpreting photographs

Then and Now: Importance of Books
Serves as a valuable learning tool for individuals and academic institutions.
Then and Now: Importance of Books
Books are used as social tools.
Then and Now: Importance of Books
Helps us to gain new insight or perspectives in life and other issues in our society
TAKE NOTE!
It was a printing press and a major world of books that first came to the New World in the 17th century.
The Earliest colonist came to America for two reasons:
1. To escape religious
persecution
2. To find economic
opportunities
which are unavailable
to them in Europe
Most of the books they carried with them to the New World were more of religious-oriented. However, they only brought few books at all.
Reasons why early
settlers did NOT
find books
central to their lives:
Simple fight for survival
Lack of portability of books
In addition, books and reading before are symbols of wealth and status, therefore not a priority for people who consider themselves to be pioneers, servants of the Lord, or anti-English colonists.
1638
- the first printing press arrived in North American shores, only 18 years after the Plymouth Rock landing.

Cambridge Press
- a company that operated the first printing press

>Printing was limited to religious and documents only.

The Whole Booke of Psalms (1644)-
first book printed in colonies; referred to as
Bay Psalm Book
Poor Richard’s The Almanack- (1732)
By Richard Saunders- sold 10,000 copies annually; it contains short stories, poetry, weather predictions and other facts or figures that are relevant and useful.
Pamela
- Written by Samuel Richardson, an English author. It was published by Benjamin Franklin; first true novel
The prime reason why the books and writings lack variety is because of the requirement that all printing process must be done with the permission of colonial governors.
Because of their loyalty to
King George II
, secular printing and criticism of British crown and British administration was never authorized and publication of those writings will result into imprisonment. Even though those writings promotes truth and justice, still, it was prohibited. They even revolt against the official control in March 1765.
Stamp Act
- All publications must have government seal.
November 1765
- When the tax was to take effect, the authorities were intimidated to the reaction of the colonists that they were unwilling to enforce it.
Mid-1770s
- Anti-British sentiment reached its climax, books were its core
Did you know?
Thomas Paine
was the American Revolution's most widely read colonial author. Some of his works are
The American Crisis, The American Crisis,
and his most famous work,
Common Sense
, that sold 120,000 copies in the first 3 months of its release to a total population of 400,000 adults.
After Independence War, printing centered political, intellectual and cultural life in the major cities.
Time Travel: Books
Books Come to Colonial North America
Time Travel: Books
Early Book Industry
Books are still expensive, its literacy remained at luxury, and however, due to large measure to a movement begun before Civil War, compulsory education had come to most states by 1900. This caused the demand of books.
In 1861, United States had the highest literacy rate of any country in the world (58%) and 40 years later, 9 out of every 10 U.S. citizens could read.
Time Travel: Books
Improving Printing
The 1800s saw a series of important refinements to the whole printing process.
Continuous roll paper
rapidly prints large number of identical and standardized pages. It was invented France.
In 1811, a German inventor,
Friedrich Koenig
converted printing press from muscle to steam power, speeding production of printed materials and reducing its cost.
In 1830, Americans
Thomas Gilpin
and
James Ames
perfected a wood-grinding machine that produces enough pulp to make 24 miles of paper daily, lowering as well the cost of printing.
Linotype Machine
- introduced in US by its discoverer, German immigrant
Ottmar Mergenthaler
in 1884.
At the same time,
Offset Lithography
was developed. This advance made possible printing from photographic plates rather from the heavy and relatively fragile metal casts.
Time Travel: Books
The Flowering of the Novel
The combination of improved, lower-cost printing and widespread literacy produced flowering of the novel in the 1800s.
Irwin and Erastus Beadle
- noticed the growing popularity of books. They began publishing and selling novels for 10 cents in 1860. Their novels focused on frontier and adventure stories.
Beadle and Company
had produced over 4 million volumes of
pulp novels.
They have democratized books and turned them into a mass medium.

Pulp novels or pulp magazines
are inexpensive fiction print materials that were published from 1896 through the 1950s. The term pulp derives from the
cheap wood pulp paper
on which the magazines were printed; in contrast, magazines printed on higher quality paper were called
"glossies" or "slicks".
Time Travel: Books
The Coming of Paperback Books
Dime Novels
- were paperback books because they were produced with paperback covers.
Pocket books
- have been introduced to US; small and inexpensive books.
Early Beginnings in the Philippines
Time Travel: Books
Spanish Era
Began in the Philippines with the arrival of the Spanish in 1565.

The Spaniards felt a pressing need to describe the languages most commonly spoken in the archipelago in order to communicate with the Filipinos.

The missionaries were urged to learn the vernacular languages but were subsequently required to teach Spanish.
¡Hola!
¿Cómo estás?
Missionaries learned the Philippine languages by writing vocabularies, grammars, and catechisms.
In 1593, the first printing press in the Philippines was built by
Father Domingo de Nieva
with the help of
Keng Yong
, a Chinese printer.
A bilingual Spanish–Tagalog catechism
Doctrina Christiana
by
Franciscan Juan de Plasencia
, corrected by
Dominicans
, and a
Doctrina Cristiana in Chinese
were published in
1593
. These were the
first books
to be published in the Philippines. In the early 17th century, the Doctrina Christiana was translated in the Ilocano dialect through
Augustinian Francisco Lopez
, with the help of
Pedro Bukaneg
.
From the year 1580, up to the 19th century, it was reported that countless grammar books, dictionaries and vocabularies were written in Spanish and Tagalog but only a handful of them were published, but some of them are only found in specialized research libraries or private collections.

The first novel authored by a native Filipino was
Ninay
, by
Pedro Paterno,
which was written while the author was living in Spain in 1885. The novel was translated in English which was released in 1907, and the Filipino translation coming the succeeding year.

Jose Rizal’s novels, the
“Noli Me Tangere”
and
“El Filibusterismo”
, are two of the most famous novels in this period, because of its effect in waking up the nationalistic spirit in the early Filipinos and sparked the revolution.
CONTEMPORARY PERIOD (Post-colonial period, martial law, present times)
Multilingual (Spanish, Tagalog and other major dialects) books, journals and other printed materials started emerging after the colonization of the Spaniards, and continued until the Americans, when the English language was introduced to the Filipinos.
In 1940,
Pres. Manuel L. Quezon
signed
Proclamation No. 134
, and
Tagalog
became the basis of the Filipino Language we came to know today. Different grammar books and text books were written using the language, including
Lope K. Santos’

“Diksyunaryong Tagalog”.
Martial Law period:
Printing and publishing were controlled by the government at this time, but books centered during the regime were published after the era, an example is
“Dekada ‘70”
by
Lualhati Bautista.
Pop fiction books are emerging at present times, or books published by online writers. Examples are “She’s Dating the Gangster” by SGwannaB, and “Diary ng Panget” by HaveYouSeenThisGirL, both titles now have movie adaptations
Books
and
Their Audiences
The
book industry
was bound by many of the same financial and industrial pressures that constrain other media but books are in the position to rise above those constraints.
Reasons why books have been seen as powerful cultural force:
Books are agent of social and cultural change
Books are an important cultural repository
Books are our windows on the past
Books are important sources of personal development
Books are sources of entertainment, escape and personal reflection
The purchase and reading of a book is much more an individual, personal activity than consuming advertiser-supported or heavily promoted media
Books are mirror of culture
BOOKS
The Cultural Value of the Book
BOOKS
Censorship: Western Industry
Way back then when writing systems were invented/created in ancient civilizations, they use
stone, clay, tree bark, metal sheets
for writing. This primordial form is considered as their book. Since in the ancient times, books are not yet bound and written in a paper itself, we could merely find old writings in form of books(bind). But for some instances, they bind those mediums.
Time Travel: Books
Some mediums or forms that they consider before as books are: clay tablets, codex, manuscripts and scrolls (Papyrus roll)
The writings and books before are usually handwritten, but few decades ago, printing was discovered and known. In the Southeast, China started printing the books by during the
Tang Dynasty
(618-907), The first ever book published was the “
Diamond Sutra
” in 868. While in the west,
Johannes Gutenberg
made a first ever printing press to publish his literary writings. The first ever published book was the
“The Gutenberg Bible”.
Development of books: From Ancient to Modern
Greek books
Roman Books
Humanistic and Vernacular books
The age of early printing: 1450–1550
The flourishing book trade: 1550–1800
A book is censored when someone in authority limits publication or complete access to it.
Book publishers can confront censorship by recognizing that their obligations to their industry and to themselves demand that they resist censorship.


The book publishing industry and the publisher's role in it is fundamental to the operation and maintenance of our democratic society.
Aliteracy
as
Self-Censorship
Censors can ban and burn books because books are repositories of ideas, ideas that can be read and considered with limited outside influence or supervision.
Aliteracy
, wherein people possess the ability to read but are unwilling to do so, amount to the censor's work for them.
Books
Categories of Books
Book club editions
El-hi
Higher
Education
Mail-order books
Mass market paperbacks
Professional books
Religious
books
Standardized
tests
Subscription
reference
books
Trade books
University
press
books
The ideas that ultimately become the books that fit these different categories reach publishers in a number of ways. Sometimes they reach an acquisitions editor unsolicited.

BOOKS
From Ideas to Publication
ACQUISITIONS EDITOR
EDITOR
PUBLISHER
The person charged with determining which books a publisher will publish and seeking out writers who can meet their needs.
The ideas are mailed or phoned directly to the acquisitions editor by the author.
They must prepare a case for the projects they want to take on and have them reviewed and approved by a review or proposal committee.
Assigned to assist the author in producing a quality manuscript.
The publisher will determine in this time if the book will succeed or fail with readers. If the book appears to be a success, additional printings will be ordered.
Some combination of the publisher’s marketing, promotions, and publicity departments plans the advertising campaign for the book.
Review copies
are sent to appropriate reviewers in other media.
Bookstores will return unsold copies to the publisher to be sold at great discount as remainders.
At some publishing houses, they have the power to say “yes” or “no” based on their own judgment of the value and profitability of an idea. Once they say “yes”, or is given permission by the committee, the author and the publisher sign a contract.
Time Travel: Books
Trends and Convergence in Book Publishing
Convergence
is altering almost all aspects of the book industry.
The
Internet
is changing the way books are distributed and sold.

E-PUBLISHING or Electronic Publishing
offers a new way for writers’ ideas to be published. It is a publication of books initially or exclusively online.
Even the physical form of books is changing nowadays. Books are no longer composed of paper pages bounded between two covers. There have been a lot of trends and revisions as technology rises.
E-books
are books downloaded in electronic form from the Internet to a computer or handheld.
Anyone with a computer and a novel to sell can bypass the traditional book publishers, first-time writers or authors of small, niche books can have an outlet for their work.
ADVANTAGE!
ADVANTAGE!
E-books
can be published instantly.
ADVANTAGE!
Publishing e-books are cheaper than publishing an actual book.
ADVANTAGE!
Digital publishers now provide a full range of services such as copyediting, publishing, securing or commissioning artwork, jacket design and promotion.
Print on Demand (POD)
is another type of e-publishing. They store works digitally and a book can be instantly printed and bound at a bookstore that has a proper technology.
ADVANTAGE!
The advantage for publisher and reader is financial. POD books require no warehouse for storage, there are no remainders to eat into profits, and the production costs, in both personnel and equipment. A POD operation can make a profit on as few as 100 orders.
Readers have welcomed the devices and publishers have understandbly responded to the trends and current convergence.
There are books that are available for platform agnostic publishing. These are digital and hard-copy books available for any and all reading devices.
Digital Epistolary Novel (DEN)
are serialized novels being utilized by e-mail and cell phones. Readers of DEN not only read the story but they also interact with its characters and visit locations.
DEN
first appeared in the U.S. in 2004. It went more popular in Japan.
Books
Conglomeration
The book industry was dominated by relatively small operations with fewer than 20, or majority 10, people staffed in traditional publishing houses.
On the contrary, more than 78,000 companies consider themselves as publishers at present, but only a few of them releasing at least 4 titles each year.

These giant names are dominating the whole industry, including Hearst Books, the Penguin Group, HarperCollins, and among others.
The publishing giants were once independent book publishers, but are all now part of large national and international corporate conglomerates.

POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE VIEWS OF CONGLOMERATION
POSITIVE
The rich parent company provides sustenance to the publishing house, enabling it to attract more authors or to gamble on new writers that were impossible in the past.

Other media holdings of the parent company can also be promoted and repackage the books for greater profitability.
NEGATIVE
Since these publishing houses are being included in the long list of enterprises of the certain parent company, its product quality would possibly suffer as the essential editing and production steps are eliminated due to maximize profits.

Before conglomeration, publishing was often described as a cottage industry that however, extends beyond smallness of size.

Publishing houses were considered “perfectionists”, but corporate conglomerates doesn’t cater these points, as profits dominates all other considerations.

“The drive for profit fits like an iron mask on our cultural output.” -
Andre Schiffrin
, a former editor of Random House on the change from independent to subsidiary.
"Shouldn’t publishers do the right thing for the larger society and comply with demands to cease its publication?"
- Argument presented by morals crusader
Anthony Comstock
in
1873
when he established the
New York Society for Suppression of Vice.
It was the argument used on the evening of
May 10, 1933
, in Berlin when Nazi propaganda
Chief Joseph Goebbels
put a torch to a bonfire that consumed 20,000 books.
An argument made in 1953 when U.S.
Senator Joseph McCarthy
demanded the removal of more than 100 books from U.S. diplomatic libraries because of their
“procommunist”
slant.
MODERN CENSORS:
1. Harry Potter series
2. Harper Lee’s To Kill a Mockingbird
3. John Steinbeck’s Of Mice and Men
4. Goosebumps series
5. Alice Walker’s The Color Purple
6. Heather Has Two Mommies, by Leslea Newman
7. Fallen Angels by Walter Mayers
8. Sex by Madonna
9. Go Ask Alice by Anonymous
10. Beloved by Toni Morrison

BOOKS
Censorship: Philippine Industry
REASONS FOR BANNING BOOKS:
 Sexually explicit
 Offensive language
 Unsuited to age group
 Occult/Satanism
 Violence
 Promotes homosexuality
 Promotes religious viewpoint
 Nudity
 Racist
 Offers sex education
 Antifamily

Cottage industry
- book industry before conglomeration; small enterprise with its own authors and staffs. Corporate conglomerate’s world lacks niceties as profit dominates all other consideration.

CONGLOMERATION IN THE PHILIPPINES

Like the West book industry conglomeration. Philippine book industry started from small operations and presses until the uprising. It urged to be globally competitive. From being nationally known, the book industry in the Philippines are now considered a part of larger conglomerations,

Books
Growth of Small Presses
Overcommercialization
of book industry is mitigated somewhat by the rise in the number of smaller publishing houses, although these are many, they account for a very small proportion of books sold.
Some specific areas those presses specialize are: Environment, Feminism, Gay issues and how-to. They also publish poetries and other literary writings or commentary.
Some books do not only earn healthy sales but can make a difference in their readers’ lives.
In the Philippines, there are thousands of presses as well, maybe small or a large one. Some of these presses are the Adarna Publishing House, Rex publishing house and many more.


NOLI ME TANGERE and EL FILIBUSTERISMO
This novel (Noli Me Tangere) and its sequel, El Filibusterismo (1891) were banned in some parts of the Philippines because of their
portrayal of corruption
and
abuse
by the country's former Spanish government and clergy. The book resulted to the
Philippine Revolution of 1896.
Books
Demand for Profits and Hypercommercialism
DEMAND FOR PROFITS
Contemporary publishing companies have profitability at all costs as their top priority, meaning, these companies are more concentrated on famous authors and blockbuster books, and unfortunately, smaller and probably more interesting and important books do not get published.

At present, little pride is taken in the content of books and that risk taking is becoming rarer and rarer.
Hypercommercialism
Hypercommercialism
is increasing the amount of advertising and mixing commercial and noncommercial media content.

The sale of the book itself and all the extended products surrounding the book.
Only promotable books, therefore will be published: Subsidiary rights grows as the emphasis of the blockbusters, the marketing, promotions, and public relations around a book become more crucial.
Paid Product Placement
: Different products are also being promoted in certain parts of the book, may it be in a subtle or an unsubtle way.

Books
CONCLUSION
Books are a tangible, valuable record of our world. Sure we have the internet and computers with vast amounts of information stored in them but all of history isn't in a computer. History, the stories of civilizations long gone and forgotten ancient languages are somewhere in a book.
Books are very essential. The importance of reading books is gaining new insight or perspectives on issues that matter to the reader that helps them to have a new understanding. Readers can apply the insight in everyday life or as a way of building upon the knowledge that already encompasses their mind and enrich their lives.
> Books as a source of information
> Book-reading as a form of leisure
> Books as a way to escape
> Books as our best buddies

Apparently, books are progressing and are involved in the entire modernization process. It started long time ago, from ancient to modern, from written to printed. Nevertheless, its real essence is still constant; unchanging.
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