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FDR and the New Deal

OCR GCSE History B: USA, 1919-41

David Rawlings

on 27 January 2015

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Transcript of FDR and the New Deal

What was the 'New Deal'?
FDR and the New Deal
Learning Objectives:

K: Features of the New Deal
U: How to explain each feature
S: Knowledge & understanding
Bronze: Can name features of the New Deal
Silver: Can explain features using historical evidence
Gold: Can compare features and evaluate their success
In November 1932 there were two Presidential candidates in the US.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Herbert Hoover
Wall Street Crash
Man of the people
Had overcome Polio
Simple message
Offered "New Deal"
As an American citizen over the age of 21 you may vote for your President? Who will you choose?
Note: Black Americans in some states were not allowed to vote until 1965.
The Election was an overwhelming success for FDR and the Democrats.
Blue = Democrat
Red = Republican
TASK: Add the characteristics to the presidential candidate.
Success criteria:
Back of Books;
Presidents' names as headings - add correct characteristic to each.
Let's review the story so far...
In the 1920s the American economy grew rapidly, due to LACKPANTS.
The 1920s were freer for women, Black Americans and Native Americans.

Cities grew, popular music, Hollywood film and spectator sports developed.

However, these groups did still not have equal rights with white, protestant men.
Roaring Twenties
Prohibition was introduced by the Volstead Act in 1920.

It banned the manufacture, distribution and sale of alcohol.

Speakeasies sold illegal alcohol, which was supplied by rum runners or gangsters and brewed by bootleggers.
The Wall Street Crash
The Wall Street stock exchange crashed on October 29th 1929 - Black Tuesday.

The crash was caused by speculation that share prices would continue to increase, overproduction of new consumer goods and American isolationism, that meant other countries did not buy their goods.
The crash led to the Great Depression. 13 million Americans lost their jobs, millions were homeless and lived in 'Hooverville' shanty towns.
In Tennessee over farming and drought caused a 'dust bowl' that left the land looking like desert.
Although traditional industries, like farming and coal mining missed out in the economic boom.
FDR and the 1932 election
Franklin Delano Roosevelt was elected in 1932 as America looked for a way our of the 'Depression'.

He offered the people hope with his promises of a 'New Deal' to solve America's problems.
Find definitions for the following key terms:
1. Hundred Days 2. Emergency Banking Act
3. Securities Exchange Commission 4. 'Fireside chats' 5. Lame duck months 6. Alphabet agencies
Success criteria:
Use p. 376 to explain each of the key words.
Title: What was the 'New Deal'?
FDR's 'New Deal' was meant to sort out America's problems.
Can you match the problems to FDR's solutions?
'Fireside chats'
Emergency banking act
Securities exchange commissions
Hundred days
Alphabet agencies
The failure of 5000 banks
Lack of confidence in politicians
Lack of rules and regulations for the stock market
Laissez-faire, laid back governance by politicians
Mass unemployment
Learning Objectives:

K: Reasons for FDRs election - Wall St Crash, New Deal
U: How to evaluate a source
S: Source skills
Bronze: Can describe features in the source;
Silver: Can explain features using historical evidence;
Gold: Can use own knowledge and historical evidence to evaluate the reliability of the source.
Wall Street, FDR and the New Deal
TASK: Source Evaluation
Evaluate the source in detail. Using 'Prezi', prepare a presentation based on your evaluation.
Sign up for Prezi - you'll need to use an email address.
Include the
of the source,
own knowledge
details from the source
Explain how
you think the source is, as a piece of information about 1930s America.
You have 30 minutes to prepare your presentation - then share the link using Edmodo.
Success criteria:

Read through the presentations via Edmodo. Add WWW and an EBI comment to each.
Learning Objectives:

K: Functions of the Alphabet Agencies
U: How effective each was
S: Evaluating success
Bronze: Can describe functions of the Agencies;
Silver: Can explain functions using historical evidence;
Gold: Can evaluate the success of the Agencies, using historical evidence.
How effective were the Alphabet Agencies?
How well are you doing?
Are you hitting your target?
Are you exceeding your target?
Review your target for GCSE:
TASK: How effective were the Alphabet Agencies?
Assess the effectiveness of the Alphabet Agencies, based on their aims.
Success criteria:
Assess at least 4 agencies (two minutes for each);
For each explain their aims, their success and their limitations;
Colour-code agencies to show their relative success, e.g. very successful in green, quite successful in yellow, unsuccessful in red.
Slaughtered baby pigs and destroyed cotton in fields
Brought in measures to outlaw child labour
Lent money to stop people losing their homes
Provided soup kitchens
Gave jobs like planting trees to young men from cities
Built dams and created cheap hydroelectric power
Built the Golden Gate bridge
Back of book - match these up
Civilian Conservation Corps
Public Works Administration
Agricultural Adjustment Act
Federal Emergency relief Administration
Home Owners Loan Corporation
National Recovery Administration
Tennessee Valley Authority
Explain the success of the Alphabet Agencies.
[6 marks]
Success criteria:
Because, because, because...
Make 3 explained points in 3 separate paragraphs.
Now swap your answers with the person next to you.
Give them a mark out of 6.
Add WWW and EBI feedback.
If they deserve a stamp, or badge on Edmodo - let me know!
Why did the New Deal encounter such opposition?
Lesson Aim:

To assess opposition to the New Deal.
Bronze: Can describe opposition to the New Deal;
Silver: Can explain reasons for opposition;
Gold: Can evaluate the extent of opposition to the New Deal.
In many ways FDR was one of the most popular Presidents in American history. he won four successive election and appeared a saviour to most Americans, particularly those individuals whose personal fortunes had been affected by his new laws.
Title: Why did groups oppose the New Deal?
1. Republicans
2. State governments
3. Businessmen
4. The Supreme Court
5. Extremists
Task: There were five main groups that opposed the New Deal. Use P.380-381 to explain why each group opposed the New Deal.
Success Criteria:
read pp.380-381;
bullet point answers.
Sort the opposition to the New Deal into these categories:
It is illegal
It won't work
It'll harm me
It isn't doing enough
Which of these categories is justified?
For the most part, why did people oppose the New Deal?
In order to Remember who opposed the New Deal think…
ruled that the NRA codes of employers’ conduct, and the AAA programme, were illegal because they took away the States’ powers. 
opposed the New Deal, saying that the Federal government was taking their powers.
People like Huey Long Senator of Louisiana said it did not go far enough.
hated the expenditure, which they said was wasteful (‘boondoggling’ – jobs for the sake of jobs).
hated the New Deal because it interfered with their businesses and supported workers’ rights.  



State government

The Supreme Court
Groups who Opposed the New Deal
Match the correct group with the correct reason
Gathering Information

Task: Use the information provided to add details to the task sheet.

Success Criteria:
Use different colours for the 1933 and 1934 New Deals.
Sort factors into psychological or physical support.
Add criticisms of the New Deal.
You only have 12 minutes!
Learning Objectives:

K: Features of both New Deals
U: Reasons for a second New Deal
S: Comparison; 6 mark questions
Bronze: Can describe the first and second New Deals;
Silver: Can explain reasons for the New Deals;
Gold: Can evaluate the reasons for both New Deals.
Why was there a second New Deal?
Explain how Roosevelt attempted to solve the problems of the Great Depression.
6 mark question:
Success criteria:
3 explained reasons
Because, because, because...
Class debate:
One of the criticisms of the New Deal was that it did too much for the poor. People said that the poor would no longer work hard if they got state benefits for free.
This hinges around the idea of the American Dream.
The American Dream said that those who work hard will be able to become the richest people in society.
"Hard work doesn't matter anymore because the state will always help you out." Do you agree?
Write down the correct term for the definition.
Success criteria:

P - to understand the Purpose of a cartoon
O - use Own Knowledge to explain the purpose
D - use Details from the cartoon to explain the purpose

In these questions you have to consider the purpose of the cartoon.
The significance of the date needs to be explored to get full marks.
How successful was the 'New Deal'?
Why was this cartoon published in 1933? [6 marks]
Why do we produce cartoons?
Which agency?

Built the Golden Gate bridge.
Planted over half the trees in America.
Got 2 million back into work.
Offered 6-month employment opportunities.
In pairs annotate your cartoon with POD.
Why was this cartoon published in 1933?
Write an answer to this question using your notes.
Why was this cartoon published in 1933?
1. Swap your answers with somebody new.
2. Highlight POD on their answer.
3. Add WWW and EBI to their answer.
Why was this cartoon published in 1933?
Be thorough in your feedback!
Gwaith Cartref:

Why was this source published in 1933?
Rewrite your answer using the feedback you have been given.
Mr Rawlings' Thought for the Day:
With nearly 3 million unemployed in this country, are we doing enough to help people get back into work?
Bronze: Can describe the details in the source and attempt to identify the purpose;
Silver: Identify the purpose using details or own knowledge to explain it;
Gold: Can explain the purpose using both details and own knowledge.
Learning Objectives:

K: To consolidate knowledge of the 'New Deal'
U: To understand how to answer a 6 mark source based question - POD
S: Observation, inference, communication
The New Deal happened in one of the most distressed periods of American history, one in which economies around the world were racked by comparable economic pains. The New Deal also sought to achieve relief, recovery, and reform in a set of economic conditions that had been years in the making, that could not possibly be undone in a short span of time under a system of government controlled by those who had faith in the capitalist system and political establishment and who depended on Congress, farmers, and the general public for continuation in office.

Theodore Soloutos, American Historian
[10 marks] To what extent was the New Deal a success?
Success Criteria:
Make a
on the success of the New Deal
the case for
your judgement
the case against
your judgement
Give a
reasoned conclusion
, showing how you judgement is valid
Which of the following were aims of the New Deal?
Making a judgement...
1.Roosevelt restored confidence in the American people.
2.Millions of people were given work in government projects.
3.A lot of valuable work was carried out by the in building schools, roads and hospitals.
1.There was a new recession - the 'Roosevelt recession' in 1937.
2.Unemployment was not conquered by the New Deal.
3.Many of the jobs created by the New Deal were only temporary.
4.The New Deal was the most costly government programme in American History and some of its projects could be accused of wasting money.
Think about what sort of state the US was in when FDR took over.
Lowell E. Gallaway and Richard K. Vedder argue that the "Great Depression was very significantly prolonged in both its duration and its magnitude by the impact of New Deal programs." They suggest that without Social Security, work relief, unemployment insurance, mandatory minimum wages, and without special government-granted privileges for labor unions, business would have hired more workers and the unemployment rate during the New Deal years would have been 6.7% instead of 17.2%
This is your opinion. As long as you can argue it, it can't be wrong!
PEE on you paragraphs.

Point - make your point to support your judgement
Evidence - use evidence to back up the point
Explain - explain how the point answers the question
Make three points for and against your judgement.
A reasoned conclusion?
Here we are showing, without doubt, that our judgement is valid.
Sum up everything you have written so far.
You must have enough evidence to prove your point, otherwise it won't stand up to scrutiny!
getting Americans back to work
improving spectator sports
increasing immigration to America
protecting their savings and property
providing relief for the sick, old and unemployed
nationalising health care
getting American industry and agriculture back on their feet
tariffs to prevent trade with Europe
Hint: half are correct
To what extent was the New Deal a success?
Bronze: Can describe some successes of the New Deal;
Silver: Identify successes and failures of the New Deal;
Gold: Make a judgement on how far the new Deal was a success or failure based on the evidence.
Learning Objectives:

K: To consolidate knowledge of the 'New Deal'
U: To understand how to answer a 10 mark question
S: Exam skills, judgement, balanced argument
Who is the odd-one-out?
Ramsay MacDonald - British PM in 1932
Bronze: Can describe some successes of the New Deal;
Silver: Identify successes and failures of the New Deal;
Gold: Make a judgement on how far the new Deal was a success or failure based on the evidence.
Learning Objectives:

K: To consolidate knowledge of the 'New Deal'
U: To judge the success of the 'New Deal'
S: Evaluation, balanced argument
To write a newspaper obituary of FDR's life, after he died in 1945.
Focus on his efforts to get America back on its feet!

Success Criteria:
One side of A4, you could include a picture.
Include key events from his lifetime.
Identify which events were the most important, i.e. Great Depression led to his election as President.
Assess his success and failures as President, do opinions differ? Were the alphabet agencies a success?
Make a judgement on the overall success of FDR as President of the USA.
USA 1932-1941 Quiz:
1. Who is this?
2. When did he become President?
3. Name the period after his election before he had been inaugrated.
4. What is the name for the period of intense state action at the beginning of his presidency?
5. Give three ways in which he tried to instil confidence in the country.
6. Give two aims of the 'New Deal'.
7. Name three Alpahabet Agencies.
8. Give two successes and two failures of the Alphabet Agencies.
9. Who opposed the 'New Deal'?
10. When were the first and second New Deals?
How successful was the 'New Deal'?
FDR has died and you've got to write a Tweet about it.
You have 148 characters in order to get across a summary of his successes and failures as President.
Let's drag ourselves into the 21st century!
Note: 148 characters means letter and spaces
"The main message of the cartoon is... "
Own Knowledge
Look at all details in the cartoon.
Think about who it is FOR or AGAINST.
This will help you to identify the
the cartoonist was trying to make.
Details from the cartoon
Take 2 minutes to identify the message
Identify the message.
What do you know that supports this message?
Think about:
The characters involved;
The date of the cartoon.
What details in the cartoon also support your message?
Look at every detail and read the caption if there is one.
This should be a clear political message.
Well done!
You're now an expert at evaluating cartoons!
Now practice, practice, practice!
[6 or 7 marks]
How do I answer cartoon questions?
How do you get 7-9 marks on a 10 mark question?
Can describe details in the source and use own knowledge;
Identify the message of the source and use own knowledge
details to explain;
Identify the message and use source
own knowledge to explain it.
Learning Objectives:

K: Requirements of 'Message' questions
U: How to use MOD
S: Source-based answers
FDR and the New Deal
1. What slogan was said about Hoover 1930s?
2. Which election did Hoover loose?
3. Who replaced Hoover as president?
4. What did he promise?
5. What did FDR broadcast?
6. How did FDR sort out the banks?
7. How did FDR help farmers?
8. How many unemployed were there in 1934?
9. Which act aimed to improve relations between workers and employers?
10. How many new deals were there?
Learning Objectives:

Understand the significance of the bonus march for Hoover's reelection campaign.
Bronze: Can describe features of the bonus march;
Silver: Can explain features in detail;
Gold: Can judge the impact of the bonus march on Hoover's election campaign in 1932.
Why was the Bonus March important?
When was the 'Bonus March'?
How many people went on the march?
What job had they all done?
Why were they in Washington?
How did Hoover deal with the marchers?
What effect might this have had on Hoover's popularity?
5 questions:
Questions on the bonus march...
Task: Write a newspaper report on the 'Bonus March'
: Explains what happened in the Bonus March;
: ...and includes detailed historical evidence using own knowledge and p.375;
: ...and evaluates how the Bonus March will effect Hoover's re-election campaign.
The New Deal
When Roosevelt cut the new deal budget in 1937 there was another mini-recession.
This shows that the USA still needed the new deal policies, as they hadn't yet solved the problems of the Depression.
= Success in terms of
= Success in terms of
= Success in terms of
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