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USE OF MICROBES IN BEVERAGE INDUSTRY
Transcript of USE OF MICROBES IN BEVERAGE INDUSTRY
Ethanol fermentation is an anaerobic process
If oxygen is present some species of yeast like
will be cause a cellular respiration which will turn Pyruvate(CH3COCOO−) into Carbon dioxide and water, but these species of yeast will produce ethanol only in an anaerobic environment.
, or fission yeast
prefers fermentation to respiration.
Introduction And Methadology
WEDNESDAY, March 19, 2014
Vol I, No. 1
INTRODUCTION OF BEVERAGE PRODUCTION
USE OF MICROBES IN THE BEVERAGE INDUSTRY
Introduction To Ethanol Fermentation
The process of converting
sugars into cellular energy
and then into ethanol and carbon dioxide as metabolic waste products.
The Overall Chemical formula
C6H12O6 + Zymase → 2 C2H5OH + 2 CO2
Zymase is naturallypresent enzyme in Yeast
If we take the history of the beverage production ,there were a lot of beverage productions in the many countries .If we consider the beverage production in the world Alcoholic beverage production take best place among other beverage productions..If we take Alcoholic beverage production ,microorganisms are playing a major role in beverage industry. Alcoholic production is popular among humans since the Neolithic era. .Scientists could found the alcoholic beverages are made up from fruit rice and honey from Jiahu, China..
Categories of Alcoholic beverages..........
Alcoholic beverages are categorized into three general classes according to Taxation and Regulation of production as
- made from fermented grapes or other fruits.
- produced by the saccharification of starch and fermentation of the resulting sugar
- produced by distillation of Alcoholic fermentation mixtures such as wine, increasing its proportion of alcohol content (commonly known as alcohol by volume, abv)
Other beverage productions.....
As well as we can find a few of other non alcoholic beverage productions.
Soft drink processing.
Bottled water processing.
Fermentation is known as the Method used in production of all those alcoholic beverages .
Fermentation is generally described as the conversion of Carbohydrates to alcohols and carbon dioxide or organic acids using yeasts, bacteria or any combination of those under anaerobic conditions.
Alcoholic Beverages production industry we can modify that definition to the Conversion of Sugars into Ethanol using above mentioned microorganisms in anaerobic conditions
Beer is the most consumed alcoholic beverage in the world.?
Some might even say that beer is the water of all things alcoholic
The process of making beer is called brewing. It is the breaking of starch in the grains into a sugary liquid, called wort, and fermenting the sugars in the wort into alcohol and carbon dioxide .
WHO OR WHAT DOES THIS ?
Two main species are used in the fermentation process
This is the top fermenting yeast used to produce ale
This is the bottom fermenting yeast used to produce lagers.
Additional yeasts species that are used in making beer are
With advent of molecular biology and genetics it has become possible to select or even make yeast strains with “custom tailored” traits. In other words with the modern advances in bio technology we have mutant yeasts who efficiently ferment the necessary worst to produce the beer.
Further fermenting and distillation of these products lead to the production of stronger alcoholic beverages with a higher percentage of alcohol. For example whiskey, brandy, vodka.
Yeast is not the only micro-organism to facilitate fermentation. The fungus
to facilitate starch fermentation from rice to produce the famous Japanese alcoholic beverage sake
Types Of Microbes used in Ethanol fermentation
Advantages over Yeast
higher sugar uptake and ethanol yield (up to 2.5 times higher)
lower biomass production,
higher ethanol tolerance up to 16% (v/v),
does not require controlled addition of oxygen during the fermentation,
amenability to genetic manipulations.
substrate range is limited to glucose, fructose and sucrose
cannot tolerate toxic inhibitors present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates such as acetic acid and various phenolic compounds
But In case of Sucrose which is a Dimer of Glucose and fructose
The enzyme invertase cleaves the glycosidic linkage between the glucose and fructose molecules.
C12H22O11 + H2O + invertase → 2 C6H12O6
Each glucose molecule is broken down into two pyruvate molecules in a process known as
C6H12O6 + 2 ADP + 2 Pi + 2 NAD+ → 2 CH3COCOO− + 2 ATP + 2 NADH + 2 H2O + 2 H+
One of the most intensively studied eukaryotic model organisms in molecular and cell biology
Called a top-fermenting or top-cropping yeast because during the fermentation process its hydrophobic surface causes the flocs to adhere to CO2 and rise to the top of the fermentation vessel
Pi - inorganic phosphate.
NAD+ -Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
ADP - Adenosine diphosphate
Invertase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis (breakdown) of sucrose
It is usually derived for industrial use from yeast.
It is also synthesized by bees, who use it to make honey from nectar
Optimum temperature is 60 °C
Have an optimum pH of 4.5
Even we have some lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria helping out in the fermention.
Wine is made from grapes or other fruit. Fermentation by Microorganisms
* unique-flavored wines;
* often unpredictable
* introduce less desirable traits to the wine
* contribute to spoilage.
many winemakers prefer to control fermentation with predictable cultured yeast.
A risk factor involved with fermentation
the development of chemical residue and spoilage which can be corrected
although excess SO2 can lead to a wine fault.
Ethanol produced through fermentation
needs nutritient access to a continuous supply of
carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus
as well as access to various
vitamins and minerals
. These components are naturally present in the grape must but their amount may be corrected by adding nutrients to the wine
Addition of sulfur dioxide(SO2)
acts as an important co-solvent to the non-polar compound (pigments from grape skins)
gives wine varieties their distinct color, and other aromatics.
Ethanol and the acidity of wine act as an inhibitor to bacterial growth, allowing wine to be safely kept for years in the absence of air.
For yeast ?
Other Alcoholic Beverages
awamori ( in japan)
sake ( in japan)
unconsumed beverages come to an end because of them!!
We discussed the role of Microorganisams in production of
None Alcoholic Beverages