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Transcript of Galileo Galilei
interest and began
his studies in mathematics
and physics, which
ended his medical
studies. Galileo became an
eager follower of
Buonamico, as shown by Galileo's Juvenilia, dating from 1584, which mostly describes Aristotle's scientific ideas. Because of financial difficulties, Galileo had to leave the University of Pisa in 1585 before earning his degree. In 1514 Nicolaus Copernicus
produced the first feasible
model of a sun-centered
system. In 1597, Galileo told
his friends that he thinks
the Copernican model of
the universe makes sense. Later on Galileo built
telescopes and started
to observe sunspots. In May of 1611, Galileo
traveled to Rome
where he was honored
for his astronomical
discoveries at a banquet by the mathematicians at Collegio Romano. The Trial of Galileo: A Chronology This is Galileo December 1613 Galileo writes a letter to Benedetto Castelli, a professor of mathematics at the University of Pisa, offering his ideas concerning the relationship of science and Scripture. January 1616 Galileo argues in writing that tidal motion proves that the earth revolves. February 1616 A committee of advisors to the Inquistion declares that holding the view that the Sun is the center of the universe or the earth moves is absurd and formally heretical. February 26th, 1616 Cardinal Bellarmine warns Galileo
not to hold, teach, or defend
Copernican theory. According to
an unsigned transcript found in
the Inquisition file in 1633, Galileo
is also enjoined from discussing
his theory, either orally or in
writing. March 1616 The Congregation of the Index
bans Copernicus' On The Revolutions
until corrections can be added. Galileo meets with Pope Paul V. 1621 Galileo is elected Consul of the
Academia Fiorentina. Pope Paul V
dies and is succeed by Gregory XV. 1623 Pope Gregory XV dies.
Cardinal Baberini is named
Pope Urban VIII. Galileo Publishes
The Assayer, which offers his
explanation for sunspots. Pope Urban VIII 1624 Galileo goes to Rome.
He has six audiences with the
Pope and meets with influential
cardinals. Pope Urban VIII tells
Galileo that he can discuss
Copernican theory- so long as
he treats it as an hypothesis. April 1630 Galileo completes work
on his Dialogue Concerning
the Two Chief World Systems. February 1632,
September 1632 Galileo obtains conditional approval from the Secretary of the Vatican for publication of Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems.
Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is printed.
Distribution of Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is stopped by Pope Urban VIII. The Pope authorizes a special commission to examine the book.
Based on the special commission's report, the Pope refers to Galileo's case to the Roman Inquisition. October 1632 Galileo receives a summons to appear before the Inquisiton. Galileo asks that his trial be moved to Florence. December 1632 Three physicans declare that Galileo is too ill to travel to Rome. The Inquistion rejects the physican's statement and declares that if Galileo does not travel to Rome voluntarily he will be arrested and take in chains. April 1633 For over two weeks he is imprisoned in an apartment in the Inquisition building. Galileo agrees to plead guilty to a lesser charge in exchange for a more lenient sentence. He offers to refute his book in another book. June 22, 1633 Galileo is sentenced to prison
for an indefinite term. December 1633 Galileo is allowed to return to his villa in Florence, where he lives under house-arrest. April 1634 Galileo's daughter, Maria Celeste, dies. Galileo dies in Arcetri. 1992 Catholic Church formally admits that Galileo's views on the solar system are correct. Contributions Phyics His early studies, at the University of Pisa, were in medicine, but he was soon drawn to mathematics and physics. It is said that at the age of 19, in the cathedral of Pisa, he timed the oscillations of a swinging lamp by means of his pulse beats and found the time for each swing to be the same, no matter what the amplitude of the oscillation, thus discovering the isochronal nature of the pendulum, which he verified by experiment. Galileo soon became known through his invention of a hydrostatic balance and his treatise on the center of gravity of solid bodies. While professer (1589-92) at the University of Pisa, he initiated his experiments concerning the laws of bodies in motion, which brought results so contradictory to the accepted teachings of Aristotle that strong antagonism was aroused. He found that bodies do not fall with velocities proportional to their weights, but he did not arrive at the correct conclusion (that the velocity is proportional to time and independent of both weight and density) until perhaps 20 years later. Galileo did find that the path of a projectile is a parabola and he is credited with conclusions foreshadowing Newton's laws of motions. Astronomy In 1592 he began lecturing on mathematics at the University of Padua, where he remained for 18 years. There, in 1609, having heard reports of a simple magnifying instrument put together by a lens-grinder in Holland, he constructed the first known complete astronomical telescope. Exploring the heavens with his new aid, Galileo discovered that the moon, shining with reflected light, had an uneven, mountainous surface and that the Milky Way was made up of numerous separate stars. In 1610 he discovered the four largest satellites of Jupitar, the first satellites of a planet other than Earth to be detected. He observed and studied the oval shape of Saturn (the limitations of his telescope prevented the resolving of Saturn's rings), the phases of Venus, and the spots on the sun. January 8th 1641 Galileo made many things to advance technology, such as a better telescope, a thermometer, and many other things. Galileo's works were questioned during his time and he got into trouble for his teachings. But he is now remembered as a great scientist. Einstein called him the "father of modern science."