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The Colonies: Southern, Middle, and New England

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Mark Twain Carroll

on 5 October 2016

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Transcript of The Colonies: Southern, Middle, and New England


Carolinas-North and South

New York
New Jersey

New Hampshire
Rhode Island
Started with Jamestown in early 1600's
Also known as the Old Dominion or The Commonwealth
Tobacco was the main crop of Virginia and wealthy planters grew it on large plantations near the coast (Tidewater Lands)
New settlers were poorer farmers and were forced further inland to the Shenandoah Valley, Backcountry and Appalachians
Southern Colonies
-The Southern colonies were known for warm weather and fertile soil
-Disease was common because of the constant moist weather
-Ideal for farming and major cash crops were tobacco, indigo, and rice...later cotton
-A cash crop is an agricultural crop which is grown for sale for profit
-Plantations needed large amounts of manual labor...indentured servants/slavery
Originally a single colony when founded in 1663
Split into North and South in 1712 over governing differences
Major exports were tobacco, lumber, and pitch (tar)
Was originally established as a prison colony in 1733
Invaded by the Spanish in 1742, but fought them off with the help of the British army
Rewarded by King George when he made them a royal colony in 1752
Southern Society and Culture
-Social class was sharply divided between a few VERY wealthy planters and many small, poor farmers
-High emphasis on manners and class
-Strong belief in social mobility
-Southerners liked to live lavishly and spend money...but it is FALSE that the majority lived on big plantations
Middle Colonies

-The area was first explored by Englishman Henry Hudson, who has the Hudson River and Bay named after him
-Most of the region was originally settled by the Dutch and called "New Netherlands"
-British captured the region in a 1664 was with the Netherlands (Holland)
-Major exports of the Middle Colonies where wheat, grains, lumber, and shipbuilding
-A unique region because of strong religious tolerance
Originally settled by the Dutch in 1613
New York City was founded on Manhattan Island and started as a Dutch trading port called New Amsterdam
The city was captured by Peter Stuyvesant in 1664 and the rest of the colony went with it
New Amsterdam and New Netheralands was renamed for the Duke of York
Fought with New Jersey over land rights for 50 years
First settled in 1665
Jersey was given to friends of King James who had been loyal to him during the English Civil War
Jersey was initially split into two separate colonies of East and West Jersey, but was united in 1704 as New Jersey
One of the first colonies to have true religious freedom
Originally land was owned by the Dutch and Swedes who fought over it for 25 years
Sir Robert Carr of England eventually capture New Amstel and renamed it New Castle
Delaware was one of the most ethnically diverse colonies with English, Dutch, and Swedish settlers all living among each other
William Penn was given the land for the colony as payment for a debt King Charles owed the Penn family
Penn allowed freedom of religion, as he was persecuted as a Quaker
Quakers (The Society of Friends) are anti-war, anti-violence, and tolerant of all peoples and faiths
The Quakers got along very well the the Native Americans in the region
Pennsylvania was also home to a huge number of "Pennsylvania Dutch" who were actually German colonists...the Deutch.
Pennsylvania also became a strong producer of iron and textiles
Middle Colony Lifestyle
-The Middle colonies mixed the culture of New England and the South
-Very diverse culturally, religiously, and ethnically
-Farms ranged in size, and most labor was done by indentured servants
-Slaves were only a small part of the Middle colonies' population
The first successful English colony in the region was Plymouth (modern day Mass.)
Founded by the Pilgrims who had come over on the Mayflower in 1620
Pilgrims were a broken off sect of Anglicans who came to America for religious freedom
Signed the Mayflower Compact to help keep order in the colony before they landed
Had only 120 settlers on the Mayflower, and 50 died in the first winter
Taught survival techniques by Sqanto even though his Paxutet tribe had been wiped out by disease by early European traders
-Despite the early hardships, the Plymouth Colony became successful and was the first permanent English settlement in New England
-Puritans saw what the Pilgrims had done and decided to follow their example
Puritans lived a strict and moral life
Believed discipline was central to everything and that man existed to do the glory of God's work
Women were marginalized because of Eve's original sin
God ruled church and state
Ban on many celebrations
-Puritans established Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1623, but some Puritans wanted to form their own sects of the faith.
-In 1636, Roger Williams, a Puritan minister from Salem, MA was banished from the colony.
-Williams believed in a separation of church and state and also thought the local Native American tribes had been treated unfairly and spoke out against some of the Puritans actions.
-Local Native Americans helped him survive in the winter of 1636, and he went on to found the colony of Providence...which became Rhode Island.
-Also in 1636, Thomas Hooker left to found Connecticut.
-He believed that all property owning males should be able to vote, not just Puritans
Early settlements were small farming or fishing villages along rivers
Soil was not as rich and winters were harder so farming never exploded
Timber was a major export to England
New England also had a booming fishing and whaling industry
Most importantly, Boston became the British colonies largest and booming port
This made New England, particularly Mass., the trade center of the Atlantic

The Atlantic Slave Trade
African slaves had been being used since the early 15th Century
They were transported to different parts of Asia, Europe, Africa, and to the Americas in small numbers
Most African slaves came from the western coast of the continent and had been captured in wars between African states and kingdoms
Native Americans proved ineffective as slave labor in the Americas becasue of their ability to escape onto native lands and their inability to resist European diseases
In the 13 Colonies, the need to have NA as allies prevented them from being captured and used as slaves
The Atlantic Slave Trade can be divided into two eras...The First and Second Atlantic Systems
The First Era started in 1502 and lasted till about 1580
The First Era was controlled primarily by the Spanish and Portuguese who sent slaves to colonies in the Caribbean and South America
Spain dipped in military power by the 1600's so the British, Dutch, Portuguese, and French took over the slave trade and began the Second Era
Most of these slaves continued to be sent to South America and Brazil where the mortality rate of the African slaves was much higher because of harder working conditions
-The Triangular Trade system lasted from the late 1500's and early 1800's
-It was a system the benefited all parties and brought goods all over the Americas, Africa, and Europe
-Europe sent manufactured products to the African chieftains and warlords who would then send slaves to the Americas
-These American slaves would work on farms and plantations to send cash crops to Europe (sugar, cotton)
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