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Revisiting Pronouns and Verbs

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Laura Brooks

on 13 August 2014

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Transcript of Revisiting Pronouns and Verbs

Facilitated by Laura Brooks
Pronouns and Verbs
Take the place of nouns
Pronouns
Think of it this way:
Pronouns
take the place of
nouns
-both common and proper.
Example:

Jason
told
Laura
that
they
were going to The Cheesecake Factory to eat
lunch
.
He
told
her
that
they
were going to The Cheesecake Factory to eat
it
.
Where it gets tricky:

Pronouns have different forms, depending on its job in the sentence. Pronouns can be
subjective
or
objective.
For example:

I
went to the fair this summer to see Kenny Loggins.
She
circled the block to find a parking space.
That piece of pizza is for
me
.
Please give the concert tickets to
us
next week.
Pronouns can also be
possessives.
This means that it shows possession. Example:

Mine
was perfectly brewed this morning.
The car was
ours,
but we never drove it.
The parking ticket is
yours
.
Its
right wall needed a lot of work.
According to the will, the house was
theirs
.
Now for pronouns in
compound

subjects
. This is where it gets even trickier! When pronouns work with other pronouns or other nouns, they form a
compound

subject
. Example:

Jason and
I
are going to San Francisco tomorrow.
She
and Jason got married in Chula Vista seven years ago.
He
and Riley beat Randall at the board game.
But wait! There's more! There are also
compound objects
. They are similar to compound subjects, but instead of performing the action (the subject of the action), they are the the
object
of the action. Example:

Riley beat Randall and
him
at the board game.
The llama spit at Sharon and
her
when they angered it.
I will take the baby with
him
and me.
Pronoun-Noun agreement can also be very tricky!!!! Pronouns need to agree with the nouns they replace in
number
,
person
, and
gender
. Example:

The
lady
at the grocery store picked up
her
purse and paid for her groceries.
Michael and Sean
said that
they
were going to bring the beer to the party.
The
audience
returned to
its
seats after intermission.
When
a student
is looking for the answer,
he or she
should reread the lecture notes first.
There are MANY other rules for pronouns. There are pronouns that end in "self," like myself, yourself, ourselves, and themselves. There are indefinite pronouns like anybody, anyone, each, either, everybody, few, many, and several. There is also a really tricky set of pronouns: who and whom. And an even trickier set: that and which. We can go into those later, if needed, but for now, you can always find more information at the Purdue OWL site, found here: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/595/02/
One little reminder:

When you see
its
, it is always the
possessive pronoun
. It was some English pro's way of distinguishing it's (it is or it has) from
its
(
the possessive pronoun
).
Activity!!!!!!
Each, either, neither
Anyone, anybody, anything
Everyone, everybody, everything
No one, nobody, nothing
Someone, somebody, something
These indefinite pronouns are always singular [even when they seem plural].
Sam is starving, and his buddies have just ordered

their “upsized” meals. Despite Sam’s drooling,

neither of them will part with their French fries.

his
him
No change is necessary.
One more...
Either of these thick books by respected authors will have the answer to your research question in their many pages.

his
his or her
its
No change is necessary.
Now this one...
Everyone on Earth = more than one person—billions of people, in fact. The word
everyone,
however, is still singular.
Grammar Bytes! provides additional handouts and exercises on pronoun agreement. Go to chompchomp.com!
Weaver Hill High has strange school colors. Their hot pink and bright yellow combination really stands out on the field.

Its
His
His and her
No change is necessary.
And this one?
If everyone stopped to smell the roses, they might get stung by bees and have their allergies kick in to overdrive!

people
he or she
his or her
No change is necessary.
How about this one...
Not only my brothers but also Mom loves to drench their omelets in ketchup.

his
her
his and her
No change is necessary.
Check what you know...
The new
puppy and kitten
have destroyed
their
owner’s sofa.
Two [or more] singular things joined by
and
make a plural....so you use a plural pronoun.
Every
new puppy and kitten destroys
its
owner’s sofa.
When
each
or
every
precedes two [or more] singular things joined by
and
this is singular.
Each
new puppy and kitten destroys
its
owner’s sofa.
Or his or her pronouns?
Everyone should know their pronouns?
Pronoun Agreement
kangaroos = plural
their = plural pronoun
kangaroo = singular
its = singular pronoun
The kangaroos carry their joeys in pouches.
The kangaroo carries its joey in a pouch.
Agreement in a Nutshell
One urban legend is that
Tito’s Taco Palace
makes
its
burritos with kangaroo meat.
One urban legend is that
Tito’s Taco Palace
makes
their
burritos with kangaroo meat.
WRONG!
Company, organization, department, and school names are singular.
This sentence might sound right, but it is completely wrong!
Beware interrupting phrases.
Neither
of my two brothers show much sense when
they
date women.
Not only
Louise
but also
the Smiths fixed
their
famous squid eyeball stew for the picnic.
Not only
the Smiths
but also
Louise fixed
her
famous squid eyeball stew for the picnic.
You’ll have two subjects — the Smiths and Louise — but only the closer one counts!
Use caution with these three conjunctions:

either … or
,
neither … nor
, and

not only … but also
.
Each
new puppy, kitten, rabbit, tarantula, python, parrot, turtle, and ferret destroys
its
owner’s sofa.
In this situation, no matter how many singular nouns you join with and, it is still singular.
The second their does not agree with a person, an error that choice C fixes.
Is the first their, a person, or the second their a problem?
Spendthrifts are quickly parted from their

money. So a person who wants to start saving

should not spend all of their time at the mall.

A. his or her
B. someone
C. his
D. No change is necessary.
his or her
example
her
its
people
Its
his
Borrowed and adapted from Chomp! Chomp!
*Also notice that English is a polite language. Always place others before yourself.
Convey an action, an occurrence, or a state of being
Verbs
Think of it this way:

A verb is an
action,
an
occurrence,
or
state of being
. For example:

She
ran
to the store to get milk.
The caterpillar
became
a butterfly and flew away.
Michael
was
angry about the earlier conversation.
There are many different tenses of verbs.
The three main tenses are
present
tense,
past
tense, and
future
tense. For example:

Today, I
dance
at 5pm.
Yesterday, I
danced
at 5pm.
Tomorrow, I
will dance
at 5pm.
From there, one can add helping verbs and that adds three more tenses:
present perfect
,
past perfect
, and
future perfect
. For example:

Today, I
have danced
.
Yesterday, I
had danced
.
Tomorrow, I
will have danced
.
From there, it is important to understand how to conjugate verbs. If they are regular verbs, they follow a regular pattern. Here is an example using the verb to walk:

First Person (I): I walk.
Second Person (You): You walk.
Third Person (He, She, It): He/She/It walks.
And if the subject is plural:

First Person (We): We walk.
Second Person (You): You walk.
Third Person (They): They walk.
http://www.usefulcharts.com/english/verb-tenses-timelines.html
ACTIVITY!!!!!!!
It's important to maintain verb tense consistency in your writing, unless the time the occurrence took place changes.
Verb Tense Consistency
The End.
When Felicia saw the turtle trying to cross the busy road, she leaped out of her car and
had carried
the reptile to safety at the other side.

was carrying
carried
will carry
No change is necessary.
Alright, one more....
Everyone
is sleeping
soundly when Brendan dropped the glass pitcher of lemonade on the stone tiles of the kitchen floor.

had been sleeping
slept
would sleep
No change is necessary.
But wait, there's more...
Carlos
pawed
at his hair and
shook
his head, but

he
cannot
dislodge the giant spider tangled in

his curls.

was pawing
was shaking
could not
No change is necessary.
Another...
Aunt Lillian
had frozen
four quarts of her

homegrown strawberries, but she
lost
them after

the hurricane
was knocking
out power for eight

days.

froze
had lost
knocked
No change is necessary.
Practice
This presentation covers recognizing appropriate verb tenses for a given time frame or context.
Grandpa planted a backyard garden, hoping that it
was helping
with the high cost of food.

will help
would help
helped
No change is necessary.
And another one...
This presentation is brought to you by Grammar Bytes!, ©2012 by Robin L. Simmons.
Because I
ate
badly, I
will have to do
more crunches at the gym.
Because he
went
to the gym today, Jeffrey
will reward
himself with a triple bacon cheeseburger for lunch. After he
weighs
himself tomorrow, he
will regret
the poor food choice.
When logic permits, you can mix past/present tenses with future.
Present tense: verb + s =
singular
Verb + Ø = plural
Present perfect tense:
has
or have +
past participle
Jeffrey
goes
to the gym six days a week where he
has gained
not only muscle but also discipline.
Use present/present perfect tense to indicate current/regular action.
Jeffrey thought he
would
have enough energy for his workout, but skipping breakfast meant that he
could
not complete his training.
Could/would = past tense of can/will.
Progressive tenses: form of be + verb + ing
Use progressive tenses to indicate an ongoing action that occurs as another action happens.
Jeffrey
was showing
off when he tore a muscle in his shoulder.
Past tense: regular = verb + ed
Irregular forms vary
Past perfect tense: had + past participle
Use past perfect to indicate a past action that occurred before another past action.
Jeffrey
had lifted
free weights for over an hour before someone
mentioned
the rip in his shorts.
Or do I need the past tense instead?
Do I use the present tense to maintain consistency?
Tense Shift
Wanted should be present tense, a correction option C makes.
Example
When King
was
a puppy, he chewed toys

and furniture. Now that he
is
an adult, he

wanted
to chew the mail carrier most of all.

A. is
B. was
C. wants
D. No change is necessary.
modified from the verb tense shift presentation
knocked
could not
would help
had been sleeping
carried
Make sure that verb tenses are consistent!!!!!
Practical editing for consistency...
Full transcript