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Analyzing Artificial Kidney Stones

Group 6 - CHM2046L
by

Annalisa Shiwbalak

on 24 March 2015

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Transcript of Analyzing Artificial Kidney Stones

Analyzing Artificial Kidney Stones
Introduction
Kidney stones have become a very common urinary disorder and treating them can be very difficult. A kidney stone is formed when substances in the urine such as calcium, oxalate, and phosphorus become highly concentrated. The kidney stone must pass through the urinary tract to exit the body which can cause extreme pain to the individual suffering from one. There are many ways to treat kidney stones, some with medical treatments from a doctor or by using a "home remedy" treatment.

For this experiment the goal was to form and dissolve synthesized kidney stones. Of the four types of kidney stones, the two most common kidney stones, calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate, were synthesized, dissolved, and compared to find the best way to dissolve a kidney stone. A diEDTA titration was used to calculate the calcium concentration within each stone. Both HCl and lemon juice were used to test the solubility of each stone. Lemon juice was used as the "home remedy" to test the solubility of the synthesized kidney stones. It was found that lemon juice was a suitable "home remedy" to dissolve synthesized kidney stones.

Methods
1M HCl was used to test the solubility of 0.1g of each synthesized kidney stone when mixed with a strong acid.

Titration
:
An ammonia buffer was added to the HCl and synthesized kidney stone solutions to make the solution basic (pH = 10), as well as 6 drops of calmagite indicator.
Added 1.0 g of diEDTA in 134mL of water to get a 0.01M titrant.
Performed titration to get amount of diEDTA solution used.
Calculated calcium concentration in ppm.

Home Remedy
:
Lemon juice was poured into a burette.
The mL used to dissolve 0.1g synthesized kidney stones was recorded.
Results and Discussion
Conclusion
Through conducting this experiment it is concluded that HCl dissolves kidney stones at a much faster rate than lemon juice. Since it would be unrealistic for doctors to administer HCl to a patient to help pass a kidney stone, lemon juice would be the appropriate "home remedy" alternative.

In every experiment, errors are inevitable. During this experiment sources of errors included not having enough trials, loss of product through transfer of substances, and not having a variety of strong acids to test the synthesized kidney stones, which would improve the accuracy of the results. If allotted more time, three trials would have been conducted to produce more reliable results. A variety of acids would be used to compare how effective each one is to dissolving the synthesized kidney stones.

Methods
Synthesis of Kidney Stones:
Calcium Oxalate:
CaCl2 + Na2C2O4 --> CaC2O4 + 2NaCl
Calcium Phosphate:
3CaCl2 + 2Na3PO4 --> Ca3(PO4)2 + 6NaCl


Stoichiometry used to find the necessary grams of each substance to yield 5.0 g of product
Mixed together with 10 mL of DI water and centrifuged for 5 minutes (Centrifuge tube must be balanced with another tube containing water on the opposite end)
Drained excess water and kidney stone placed on petri dish
Dried in oven for 30 minutes
Weight was recorded
Table 1:
Table 2:
Table 3: Dissolved Kidney Stone with HCl and Disodium EDTA Dihydrate Titration
Table 4: Dissolving with Lemon Juice
Table 6: Kidney Stone PPM
To analyze the solubility of kidney stones, HCl was used in comparison to lemon juice as a home remedy. HCl is likely to not be ingested, but lemon juice was a possibility. Disodium EDTA Dihydrate was used to titrate the Calcium Kidney Stones to determine the calcium concentration in comparison to actual kidney stones.
For finding a home remedy solution to dissolve kidney stones, lemon juice was used considering it has an acidic quality. Filling the solutions in the burette allowed a steady measurement for each trial. Comparing two different kidney stones allows for different concentrations to be analyzed in multiple trials for sources of error and accuracy.
Ppms (parts per million) are a calculation used to determine the concentration of calcium within the kidney stones. From the EDTA titration, the ppm was calculated using the amount of EDTA used to titrate a kidney stone sample. Calcium oxalate was deviated 55.2% and calcium phosphate by 15.8%.
Figure 1
Figure 2
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