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Cancer

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by

Nehal Moussa

on 28 April 2015

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Transcript of Cancer

Introduced by:
Overview
1-Nature Of Cancer cells.

2-Traditional treatment.

3-Cancer Vaccines.

4-Targeted Cancer Therapies.

5-Nanotechnology.

6-
Virotherapy.
Management of cancer
The choice of therapy depends upon the location, grade of the tumor and stage of disease.
Doxorubicin
encapsulated in long-circulating liposomes.
What are cancer vaccines?
Class of biological response modifiers substances.
Cancer
cancer from the past till now
Nehal Moussa
Faculty Of Pharmacy Tanta University
"Third Year"
Nature Of Cancer cells
1-Surgery
APPLICATION:
Palliative treatment.
Staging.

Prognosis.

Determine the need for adjuvant therapy.
LIMITATION:
Cancer has metastasized to other sites in the body prior to surgery
2- Radiation
APPLICATION:
Uses high-energy particles or waves to destroy genetic material of cancer cells.
Dose depends on radiosensitivity and location of cancer cells.
LIMITATION:
** Allowing healthy tissue to recover
between fractions.
3- Chemotherapy
Cytotoxic drugs affect rapidly dividing cells in general

Most chemotherapy regimens are given in a combination
APPLICATION:
LIMITATION:
Cell division no longer controlled as it is in normal tissue.
Work by stimulating or restoring the immune system’s ability to fight infections and disease.
There are two broad types of cancer vaccines:
Preventive (or prophylactic) vaccines,
Treatment (or therapeutic) vaccines,
How do cancer preventive vaccines work?
Target infectious agents.
Based on antigens of infectious agents that the immune system can recognize as foreign.
FDA approved two vaccines,
Cervarix®
,
protect against infection by the HPV—types 16 and 18—that cause cervical cancer.
Gardasil®,
targets four HPV types, it is called a quadrivalent vaccine.
How are cancer treatment vaccines work?
Treat cancers that have already developed.
Delay or stop cancer cell growth.
FDA approved
Provenge®,

Targeted Cancer Therapies
Angiogenesis Inhibitors
Hormone therapies
Signal transduction inhibitors
Monoclonal antibodies
Immunotherapies
Inhibit formation of new B.V.
Endogenous regulation;
Naturally in the body
Targets for cancer therapy
Exogenous regulation;
Tumors cannot grow larger than 2mm without angiogenesis
EX;Cannabinoids
Diet;
Green tea (catechins)
Liquorice (glycyrrhizic acid)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angiogenesis_inhibitor
1- Inhibitors of hormone synthesis:
Aromatase inhibitors
GnRH analogs
2- Hormone receptor antagonists
Selective estrogen receptor modulators
Antiandrogens
3-Hormone supplementation
4-Non-medical hormonal interventions
5-Hormonal immunotherapy
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hormonal_therapy_%28oncology%29
Cell received a signal
biochemical reactions
signal is relayed within the cell
produce response
The malignant cells are stimulated to divide continuously
Signal transduction inhibitors interfere with this in appropriate signaling.
Deliver toxic molecules
Antibody bound to its target cell
The toxin not affect cells that lack the target for the antibody.
Toxic molecule taken up by the cell
Death of cancer cells
Trigger the immune system to destroy cancer cells.
Some are monoclonal antibodies.
Binding to the target molecule
results in the immune destruction of cells.
Binding to certain immune cells
to help these cells better kill cancer cells.
Nanotechnology
Polymer nanoparticles carry a chemotherapy drug.
The nanoparticles attracted to a protein on cancer cells
Resulting in;
High rate of delivery
Increase the effectiveness
The nanodiamond/chemotherapy combination stays longer than the chemotherapy itself
The cancer cell can't pump nanodiamond out
http://www.understandingnano.com/cancer-treatment-nanotechnology.html
The liposomes are pegylated with surface
*
increase circulation time

*
protect them from detection by;

"mononuclear phagocyte system"
"methoxy polyethylene glycol "
Anthracycline topoisomerase II inhibitor.
In the past;
a common belief was weakness of immune system.
Recent research;
the cause is the lack " co-stimulated molecules" that aid in antigens reaction with lymphocytes.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cancer_cell
Cancer stem cells and drug resistance
Too much SP2 protein may turn stem cells into cancer cells.
molecule on the surface of tumors promote drug resistance.
By:
converting the tumor cells back into a stem cell-like state.
drugs can reverse the cellular transformation "re-sensitizing" the tumor to treatment
Activate the power.
First line treatment.
Extended survival.
Virotherapy
Oncolytic viruses induce tumor specific immunity.
Oncolytic Vaccinia Virus:

replicate and lyse tumor cells within 72 h post-infection
Move through the bloodstream to target distant tumors
Genetically modified
, selectively targets tumor cells.
Replicate in the cytoplasm of cells, preventing integration of viral DNA into host chromosomes
Full transcript