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# AS Basic skills

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## Nick Sharman

on 21 September 2015

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#### Transcript of AS Basic skills

AS Basic Skills
Two point perspective uses two sets of orthogonal lines and two vanishing points to draw each object. There are no longer any planes parallel to the picture plane. However the vertical transversal lines are still drawn parallel to one another and at right angles to the ground plane. It is at this stage that perspective drawing starts to become more awkward because the second vanishing point is often situated well outside the frame of the picture. If both vanishing points are situated within the picture frame, the angles of objects appear to be extremely foreshortened
Oblique drawing is also the crudest '3D' drawing method but the easiest to master. Oblique is not really a '3D' system but a 2 dimensional view of an object with 'forced depth'. One way to draw using an oblique view is to draw the side of the object you are looking at in two dimensions, i.e. flat, and then draw the other sides at an angle of 45 degrees, but instead of drawing the sides full size they are only drawn with half the depth creating 'forced depth' - adding an element of realism to the object. Even with this 'forced depth', oblique drawings look very unconvincing to the eye. For this reason oblique is rarely used by professional designer and engineers.
We will treat "sketching" and "drawing" as one. "Sketching" generally means freehand drawing. "Drawing" usually means using drawing instruments, from compasses to computers to bring precision to the drawings. As this is just an introduction, don't worry about understanding every detail immediately - just get a general feel for the language of graphics and drawings. Before starting on any technical drawings, let's get a good look at this block drawing, shown below, from several angles. Any engineering drawing should show everything - a complete understanding of the object should be possible from the drawing without any need for explanations. If the isometric drawing can show all details and all dimensions on one drawing, it is ideal.
Isometric drawing is way of presenting designs/drawings in three dimensions. In order for a design to appear three dimensional, a 30 degree angle is applied to its sides. The cube opposite, has been drawn in isometric projection.
Drawing
&
Sketching

Graphic Product
Ergonomics
Ergonomics is about 'fit': the fit between people, the things they do, the objects they use and the environments they work, travel and play in. If good fit is achieved, the stresses on people are reduced. They are more comfortable, they can do things more quickly and easily, and they make fewer mistakes. So when we talk about 'fit', we don't just mean physical fit, we are concerned with psychological and other aspects too. That is why ergonomics is often called 'Human Factors'.
3 types of ergonomics
Physical ergonomics is concerned with human anatomical, anthropometric, physiological and biomechanical characteristics as they relate to physical activity.
Cognitive ergonomics is concerned with mental processes ('brain work'), such as perception, memory, reasoning, and motor response, as they affect interactions among humans and other elements of a system.
Organisational ergonomics is concerned with the optimisation of sociotechnical systems, including their organisational structures, policies, and processes.
Inclusive design
The British Standards Institute (2005) defines inclusive design as "The design of mainstream products and/or services that are accessible to, and usable by, as many people as reasonably possible ... without the need for special adaptation or specialised design."
•Simply a stage that can be added in the design process
•Adequately covered by a requirement that the product should be easy to use
•Solely about designing products for a particular capability loss
•Naively implying that it is always possible (or appropriate) to design one product to address the needs of the entire population
Inclusive design is not
Functional
Usable
Desirable
Viable
The product must provide suitable features to satisfy the needs and desires of the intended users. A product with a large number of features is not guaranteed to be functional!
Easy to operate products are pleasurable and satisfying to use, while those that place unnecessarily high demands on the user will cause frustration for many people and exclude some altogether. Frustration with, or inability to use, a product can lead to a negative brand image. In the extreme, prolonged difficulties with poorly designed everyday products can even convince people that they are no longer able to lead an independent life.
A product may be desirable for many reasons, including being aesthetically striking or pleasant to touch, conferring social status, or providing a positive impact on quality of life.
The business success of a product can be measured by its profitability. This typically results from having a product that is functional, usable, and desirable, and which is delivered to the market at the right time and at the right cost.
Re-Design
You will be analysing a chosen product taking in to consideration Ergonomics, Inclusive design, User needs & Manufacturer needs.
Support Questions
What is the function of the product?
What problems have you found?
Is it accessible to all user?
Could this product be re-designed to make it more inclusive? Why? How?
Is it aesthetically pleasing?
Could this product be re-designed to reduce materials/cost
What are the needs of the manufacturer
You will need to conclude the information that you have gathered and discus any developments you could consider making.

Using your data and over lays you will need to create 3 developments considering the following:
- A more inclusive design
- A young user
- An elderly user
You need to consider what are the users needs for each design.
Objectives
Delevop an understanding of ergonomics in different context
Understand the terms Inclusive design, User needs & Manufacturer needs
Apply knowledge gathered, to develop a product for different user needs (using over lays).
19-09-11
You will be able to:
29/09/11
You will be able to:
Develop a basic understanding of different drawing techniques
Use the basic drawings skills developed during the lesson to create a 3rd angle drawing
Olympic
POS Mini project
This mini project will allow you to look at a range of designing techniques that you will be able to apply to your product study and advanced innovation challenge.
You will be designing a point of sale, that will hold, display and advertise the Olympic 2012 Mascots.
Manufacturers & Consumers needs
What are manufacturers needs?
Cost
Shipping
TQM
Materials
Environmet
?
What are consumer needs?
Quality
Price
Useability
Ergonomics
Function
choose a product from the handling collection and consider the different needs?
Considering your chosen product create a list of consumer & manufacturer needs that affect your product.
Design Brief
What is a design brief?
A design brief is a written document outlining, in complete detail, the business objectives and corresponding design strategies for a design project. Some prefer the term creative brief. The most critical elements of a design brief are: a complete description of the project—
what is it that is trying to be done; why is this needed now; what business outcomes are expected; who is this being done for (the target audience); and who are the key stakeholders
in this project. The design brief must also address current industry trends, the competition, scope, time-line, budget and measurement of success metrics.
Video design brief!!!!
Product Analysis
We love product Analysis!
Function
Materials
Manufacturing
Ergonomics
Aesthitics
Cost
TQM
TQM functions on the premise that the quality of products and processes is the responsibility of everyone who is involved with the creation or consumption of the products or services offered by an organization. In other words, TQM capitalizes on the involvement of management, workforce, suppliers, and even customers, in order to meet or exceed customer expectations
Total quality management or TQM is an integrative philosophy of management for continuously improving the quality of products and processes.
Just in time (JIT) is a production strategy that strives to improve a business return on investment by reducing in-process inventory and associated carrying costs. Just-in-time production method is also called the Toyota Production System. To meet JIT objectives, the process relies on signals or Kanban (看板, Kanban?) between different points in the process, which tell production when to make the next part. Kanban are usually 'tickets' but can be simple visual signals, such as the presence or absence of a part on a shelf. Implemented correctly, JIT focuses on continuous improvement and can improve a manufacturing organization's return on investment, quality, and efficiency.
JIT
Just in time
One off
Batch
Mass
Manufacturing processes
The ‘specification’ is probably the easiest part of the design process . It is usually a list of points, with each point referring to the research work. In the specification you need to show what you have learnt from the research that you collected and presented in the research section.
Specification
Write a rough specification first and ask other pupils / teachers to read it.
Look carefully at each statement and keep the English as clear and simple as possible.
Limit the statements to between 7 to 12 points (maximum).
Ensure most points refer directly to your research.
03/09/11
You will be able to:
Develop a basic knowledge of Adobe illustrator that can be applied to create your own cartoon character
Specification
1. The specification should be composed of simple, clear statements. Keep the statements as short as possible.
2. If possible, always refer to the research you have carried out. For example, “The colour scheme will be based on blue and red as these colours are the most popular - as seen in my questionnaire”.
3. Look at each page of your research and try to write a statement based on each one. Most of the statements in the specification should refer to your research section.
4. Keep the number of statements to between 7 to 8 in total. Specifications should be short and precise in what they state.
5. Each of the statements should help determine the final design of the product. For example, there may be a statement concerning the overall size or weight of the product. This clearly places limits on the design of the product.
6. Ask another pupil or a teacher to read your draft specification. It should be easy for them to form a view of your final product, and describe it back to you. If this description is similar to what you intend for your final product, then your specification is correctly written.
7. Look at the specification written by another pupil attempting the same project. This will help you formulate further statements for your project.
8. The specification should take you no longer than an hour to write, if you have carried out detailed research.
The specification is probably the easiest section of a design project, if all the research has been carried out. The specification draws on the information collected and presented during the research section. The specification is a number of straightforward statements, made clearly outlining the nature of the project to be designed and manufactured. If the research section has not been completed fully, the specification will also be lacking.
Specification points to consider
Aesthtics
Cost
Client
Ergonomics
Environment
Safety
Function
Materials
Target market
Overall size
Life cycle/product life span
Quality control
Health & Safety
Manufacture
Create a range of design ideas for your Olympic mascot point of sale. You need to include a range of different methods of creating design ideas, these may include:
Using the given objects you will need to produce a specification that the designer would have had used when they where designing the product.
The specification must include at least 5 point and be justified.
21/09/12
You will be able to:
Continue to develop a clear understanding of how to use illustrator to support designing.
Investigate into how to insert a video into power point.
25/09/12
You will be able to:
Develop a basic understanding of how to use styro foam to create model concepts
Produce a model of an existing product using styro foam and the knowledge gained during the lesson
Sketching techniques
Over lays using GS as a basis to work from
Illustrator
Independent Study
Carry out a detailed product analysis on 6 existing point of sales. Produce a range of design ideas for your olympic point of sale using a variety of different designing techniques.
3/11/11
You will be able to:
Gain a clear understanding of a range of different manufacturing techniques used within industry.
Apply knowledge gained and carry out further research to identify the different manufacturing processes used to create your chosen product.
Legislation
Further studies
Using the information gathered in class, you are to research examples of each legislation symbol on products. You will need to have an image of the product and explain the relevant symbol attached to it.

You will need to include the following:
- Food labeling
- Quality and safety assurance
- BSI
- Safety label
- Kitemark
- Patent or Patent pending
- Registered design
Design Development
Transitional phase of Designer in which the design moves from the schematic phase to the contract document phase. In this phase, the designer prepares drawings and other presentation documents to crystallize the design concept and describe it in terms of architectural, electrical, mechanical, and structural systems.
Areas to consider when developing your work
Components
Materials
Fixings
Function
Form
User
Inclusive Design
Environment
Development
presentation
You are going to be delivering a presentation on your concept point of sale. The following will need to be completed and included in youor presentation:
User & manufacturer needs
Design brief
Product Analysis
Specification
Knowledge of relevant legislations
Design Ideas annotated against specification
Development models
Development sketches annotated
05/10/12
You will be able to:
Develop a clear understanding of the fundamentals of google sketchup.
Create an instructional booklet to support the production of your 3D model.
Health & Safety
17/11/11
You will be able to:
Develop a clear understanding of how peer evaluation can help with the development of your own work
Understand the basic knowledge of Health & Safety in a working environment
Undertake a risk assessment of two machines used during the manufacture of your models.
11/12/12
you will be able to:
Develop your knowledge of ergonomics (human factors) and how a design can be improved based on human factors
Develop your knowledge on scales of production and the implication of each process includes
Understand how modifications can improve the economic viability of products
Manufacturing Processes
Injection Moulding
Materials such as polystyrene, nylon, polypropylene and polythene can be used in a process called injection moulding. These are thermoplastics - this means when they are heated and then pressured in a mould they can be formed into different shapes.
Blow moulding
Blow moulding follows the same stages of manufacture as injection moulding. HDPE (high density polyethylene) is ideal for this typeof manufacturing technology
Die casting
Die casting is the process of injecting a multan metal in to a mould. A charge is poured infront of the plunger and drives the multan metal in to the die.
Rotational Moulding
A heated hollow mold is filled with a charge or shot weight of material, it is then slowly rotated (usually around two perpendicular axes) causing the softened material to disperse and stick to the walls of the mold. In order to maintain even thickness throughout the part, the mold continues to rotate at all times during the heating phase and to avoid sagging or deformation also during the cooling phase.
Compression moulding
Moulding through the force of compression is another very common industrial process. The materials used are melamine formaldehyde, phenol and urea. These materials can be formed into different shapes through applying both heat and pressure, other plastics do no have these properties.
Other manufacturing Processes
Vacuum Forming
Calendaring
Press forming
Cupping & Drawing
Embossing
Investment casting
Materials
Plastics
Wood
Metal
Thermoplastic
Thermosetting Plastic
Natural
Ferrous
Non-Ferrous
Scales of production
High quality
Skilled workers
Labour intensive
Expensive
Customer gets what they want
Unique, detailed products
Specs can change easily
Job satisfaction
One-off
Batch
Continuous (mass)
Can be repeated many times
Workers can work in teams/cells to produce specific parts each
Flexible, can be changed for new orders
Stock needs to be stored
Automotive components
Pills
Motor vehicles, washing machines, paperclips
High volume
Low number of variants (eg body type)
Low cost
Semi skilled and unskilled labour can be used
Expensive to set up
Just in time can be used
Physical handling minimal
Just in time (JIT) is a production strategy that strives to improve a business return on investment by reducing in-process inventory and associated carrying costs. Just-in-time production method is also called the Toyota Production System. To meet JIT objectives, the process relies on signals or Kanban (看板, Kanban?) between different points in the process, which tell production when to make the next part. Kanban are usually 'tickets' but can be simple visual signals, such as the presence or absence of a part on a shelf. Implemented correctly, JIT focuses on continuous improvement and can improve a manufacturing organization's return on investment, quality, and efficiency.
JIT
Cell/Modular
A group of machines or a group of workers and machines that carry out tasks together in order to produce components or a complete productare known as production cells. People who work in this arrangement will be required to work as a team and may carry out several tasks in producing the final item.
Woods are classified into two main groups, softwoods and hardwoods . Trees are either coniferous (bears cones and have needle shaped leaves that stay green all year round) or deciduous (has flat leaves that fall in autumn). The timber that comes from the coniferous tree is known as softwood and the timber that comes from deciduous trees is known as hardwood. Although the terms suggest that softwoods are soft and easy to cut and shape and that hardwoods are hard and more difficult to shape this is not the case. For example, balsa wood which is noted for its lightness and softness, is actually classified as a hardwood.
Plastics are versatile and flexible materials and they may be very suitable for use in your project. This may be an area of materials research that you need to investigate in detail. It is important that you read the information below and consider the type of plastic that will best suit your project.
A vast range of metals exist and they fit in two categories, ‘ferrous’ and ‘non-ferrous’ metals. These metals can be used to build/manufacture an equally large range of items. Study the properties of the materials below, you may find that they are useful for your project. You may need to investigate metals further.
Contain Iron
Does not contain Iron
Once 'set' these plastics cannot be reheated to soften, shape and mould. The molecules of these plastics are cross linked in three dimensions and this is why they cannot be reshaped or recycled. The bond between the molecules is very strong.
These plastics can be re-heated and therefore shaped in various ways. They become mouldable after reheating as they do not undergo significant chemical change. Reheating and shaping can be repeated. The bond between the molecules is weak and become weaker when reheated, allowing reshaping. Thermoplastics tend to be composed of 'long chain monomers'. These types of plastics can be recycled.
Polyurethane. This forms the basis of many paints and varnishes because it is very tough and has water resistant qualities.

Melamine Formaldehyde. Used in the production of plastic laminates because of its smooth surface and hygienic qualities. It is also used in electrical plugs and sockets because it can be cast and it is an excellent insulator.

Urea Formaldehyde (UF): Urea Formaldehyde has physical properties of high hardness and high toughness, making it suitable for strong, knock-resistant electrical fittings. It is also scratch resistant and a very good electrical insulator, making electrical fittings manufactured from this polymer safe to use.

Polyester resins. If resins are combined with a material such as fibre glass the result is a very tough material that can resist impact. This type of material is known as a glass reinforced plastic (GRP) and is used in car body repairs, sailing boats, corrugated sheet because of its lightness, toughness and resistance to water.
Acrylic. (Known also as PERSPEX) This is the most common plastic in a school workshop. It is purchased usually in the form of sheets and comes in a range of colours. It can be translucent (e.g. smoked), transparent or opaque. It is resistant to most acids and weather conditions.

Polythene. Can be moulded into almost any form due to its excellent moulding qualities. Used for the production of bottles, bowls, toys, tube etc... It is available in large sheets. There are two types: High density which is rigid and hard, and low density which is tough and flexible. Machine parts are generally made from high density polystyrene whilst bottles are made from the low density polystyrene.

Polyvinyl Chloride. Better known as PVC. It is a tough material which can be purchased as a hard material or alternatively a flexible form. It can be welded or bonded with an adhesive. It has a range of uses including water pipes, raincoats, long play records, coating on electrical wires and many more.

Polyethylene. The most common plastic in everyday life. Used in the manufacture of 'plastic' bottles, grocery bags, shampoo bottles and children's toys.

Polycarbonate. This is a thermoplastic which means it can be shaped and formed through a number of manufacturing processes. It machines well and can be solvent bonded and welded. It is tough and resistant to damage which is an ideal property for a mobile phone. If dropped, a mobile phone with a polycarbonate casing is likely to survive undamaged. It is an insulator, often used to insulate electrical circuits.It is supplied in a range of colours.

Woods are classified into two main groups, softwoods and hardwoods . Trees are either coniferous (bears cones and have needle shaped leaves that stay green all year round) or deciduous (has flat leaves that fall in autumn). The timber that comes from the coniferous tree is known as softwood and the timber that comes from deciduous trees is known as hardwood. Although the terms suggest that softwoods are soft and easy to cut and shape and that hardwoods are hard and more difficult to shape this is not the case. For example, balsa wood which is noted for its lightness and softness, is actually classified as a hardwood.
Soft wood
Pine
Hard wood
Mahogany
Oak
Teak
These are boards that are made in factories from materials such as wood chippings or dust.
Examples
Ply
MDF
Chip board
Marine Ply
Hard board
Block board
Die Cutting
Die cutting is the process of using a die to shear webs of low strength materials, such as rubber, fiber, foil, cloth, paper, corrugated fiberboard, paperboard, plastics, pressure sensitive adhesive tapes, foam and sheet metal.
Die cutting can be done on either flatbed or rotary presses. Rotary die cutting is often done inline with printing. The primary difference between rotary die cutting and flatbed die cutting is that the flatbed is not as fast but the tools are cheaper. This process lends itself to smaller production runs where it is not as easy to absorb the added cost of a rotary die.
01/12/11
You will be able:
Apply your knowledge of ergonomics to your strengths and weaknesses section of work
Ergonomics
Percentiles
Ergonomics (or human factors) is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance
& Anthropometrics
Percentiles are shown in anthropometry tables and they tell you whether the measurement given in the tables relates to the 'average' person, or someone who is above or below average in a certain dimension.

If you look at the heights of a group of adults, you'll probably notice that most of them look about the same height. A few may be noticeably taller and a few may be noticeably shorter. This 'same height' will be near the average (called the 'mean' in statistics) and is shown in anthropometry tables as the fiftieth percentile, often written as '50th %ile'. This means that it is the most likely height in a group of people. If we plotted a graph of the heights (or most other dimensions) of our group of people, it would look similar to this:
First, notice that the graph is symmetrical – so that 50% of people are of average height or taller, and 50% are of average height or smaller. The graph tails off to either end, because fewer people are extremely tall or very short. To the left of the average, there is a point known as the 5th percentile, because 5% of the people (or 1 person in 20) is shorter than this particular height. The same distance to the right is a point known as the 95th percentile, where only 1 person in 20 is taller than this height.

So, we also need to know whether we are designing for all potential users or just the ones of above or below average dimensions. Now, this depends on exactly what it is that we are designing.

For example, if we were designing a doorway using the height, shoulder width, hip width etc., of an average person, then half the people using the doorway would be taller than the average, and half would be wider. Since the tallest people are not necessarily the widest, more than half the users would have to bend down or turn sideways to get through the doorway. Therefore, in this case we would need to design using dimensions of the widest and tallest people to ensure that everyone could walk through normally.

Deciding whether to use the 5th, 50th or 95th percentile value depends on what you are designing and who you are designing it for.

Usually, you will find that if you pick the right percentile, 95% of people will be able to use your design. For instance, if you were choosing a door height, you would choose the dimension of people's height (often called 'stature' in anthropometry tables) and pick the 95th percentile value – in other words, you would design for the taller people. You wouldn't need to worry about the average height people, or the 5th percentile ones – they would be able to fit through the door anyway.

At the other end of the scale, if you were designing an aeroplane cockpit, and needed to make sure everyone could reach a particular control, you would choose 5th percentile arm length – because the people with the short arms are the ones who are most challenging to design for. If they could reach the control, everyone else (with longer arms) would be able to.
Using the anthropometric data supplied you are going to design a chair that is as inclusive as possible. You will need to decide on the percentile you will be designing for and draw a side and front view including all of the required measurements.
11/01/13
You will be able:
Investigate Moral, Economical & Environmental responsibilities for your chosen product
15/03/12
You will be able to:
Design Development
Ergonomics
Shape
Colour
Function
Modeling
Sketches
Overlays
Evaluating
Materials
Videos
Marketing
Marketing broadly refers to the identification and anticipation of customers needs and hopefully meeting those needs
Market research
This can also be referred to as 'in-bound marketing', market research involves finding out and analyzing information about:
- Particular markets, the needs of the consumers and target markets
- Who are the competitors and what they are doing
- Up-to-the minute market trends
- Customer satisfaction relating to products and services
Primary research
Precise data, meets exact needs of company
Collected first hand using questionnaires, focus/user groups, surveys and field research, etc
Can be costly
Secondary
Use available data from magazines, references, books, government agencies
Provides information such as population trends and regional statistics
Can be out of date or incorrect
Marketing mix
4P's
26/04/12
You will be able to:
Gain a basic knowledge of key marketing concepts and produce a marketing plan for your final product
5 mins
10 mins
20 mins
5 mins
5 mins
15 mins
Product
The marketing mix includes the basic components of a marketing plan or strategy; often referred to as the 4P's.
A product is examined on 3 levels
The core
The benefits/USP's of the product
The Actual
The actual physical product
The Augmented
The customer services support offered, warranty, guarantee and after sales.
Price
The price of the product may depend on:
Demand
Costs (must cover all costs incurred)
Government taxes
Competition
Methods of pricing include:
Penetration pricing
Price set artificially low to gain market share; once achieved, the price is increased
Price Skimming
If product has competitive edge, a high price can be set ; this will fall with increased supply
Psychological pricing
Charging £1.99 rather than £2
Predatory pricing
Undercutting competitors, creating price wars
Promotion
Decisions have to be made on how best to promote the product and bring it to the attention of potential customers. The intention is to win new customers or persuade them to change brand loyalty.
Methods include:
Short-term promotions such as Buy One Get One free (BOGOF), competition and coupons.
Publicity campaigns
Personal selling/sales representatives
Celebrity endorsement
Etc
The acronym
AIDA
is used in promotion and
: draw
attention
, create
interest
, generate
desire
, invite
action
.
Place
Place or placement refers to the location where a customer can purchase a product. It is sometimes known as the distribution channel. It can include any physical store or shop as well as TV shopping channels and the internet.
There are four main channels of distribution:
M-C

M-R-C

M-W-C

M-W-R-C
e.g mail order, farm shop
e.g high-street stores
e.g furniture
e.g medium size convenience store (large supermarkets often cut out the wholesaler)
Functions of the distribution channels include:
contacting prospective buyers; matching the offer to the buyers needs, negotiating agreement on price and terms, and storing and transporting the products.
You will now need to discus in your groups and choose one of your peers products to market. You will need to follow the 4P's to create a successful marketing plan.
Life cycle assessment
Life Cycle Assessment is potentially the most important method for assessing the overall environmental impact of products, processes or services. It is also sometimes referred to as Life Cycle Analysis or LCA.
Key points
1
2
3
4
5
6
Product life cycle
We define a product as "anything that is capable of satisfying customer needs. This definition includes both physical products (e.g. cars, washing machines, DVD players) as well as services (e.g. insurance, banking, private health care).
Introduction stage
At the Introduction (or development) Stage market size and growth is slight. it is possible that substantial research and development costs have been incurred in getting the product to this stage. In addition, marketing costs may be high in order to test the market, undergo launch promotion and set up distribution channels. It is highly unlikely that companies will make profits on products at the Introduction Stage. Products at this stage have to be carefully monitored to ensure that they start to grow. Otherwise, the best option may be to withdraw or end the product.
Growth stage
The Growth Stage is characterised by rapid growth in sales and profits. Profits arise due to an increase in output (economies of scale)and possibly better prices. At this stage, it is cheaper for businesses to invest in increasing their market share as well as enjoying the overall growth of the market. Accordingly, significant promotional resources are traditionally invested in products that are firmly in the Growth Stage.
Maturity Stage
The Maturity Stage is, perhaps, the most common stage for all markets. it is in this stage that competition is most intense as companies fight to maintain their market share. Here, both marketing and finance become key activities. Marketing spend has to be monitored carefully, since any significant moves are likely to be copied by competitors. The Maturity Stage is the time when most profit is earned by the market as a whole. Any expenditure on research and development is likely to be restricted to product modification and improvement and perhaps to improve production efficiency and quality.
Decline stage
In the Decline Stage, the market is shrinking, reducing the overall amount of profit that can be shared amongst the remaining competitors. At this stage, great care has to be taken to manage the product carefully. It may be possible to take out some production cost, to transfer production to a cheaper facility, sell the product into other, cheaper markets. Care should be taken to control the amount of stocks of the product. Ultimately, depending on whether the product remains profitable, a company may decide to end the product.
Kellogs case study
From the information that you have gathered within the case study you need to complete to 4 questions.
This is a generic table showing the life cycle assessment of a product. Your task is to create your life cycle assessment looking at how you can make your product as eco friendly as possible.
Exam style questions
The council have short listed your idea. Prepare a presentation to sell your idea to the organisers
who are considering its viability.
You should include:
• Information on your market and how you would target and engage them.
• The unique selling points of your product.
• Modifications that could be made to your design to make it more economically viable to
produce the batch required for the event.
Sustainability is an increasingly important issue for any designer, and the organisers are keen to
raise environmental awareness among young people. Prepare a discussion on these environmental
and social issues.
You should include:
• Modifications you would make to your product to make it more environmentally friendly/
sustainable.
• Consideration of materials and manufacturing techniques that could be used.
• Consideration of the Life Cycle Analysis of your product.
Q2.
Q1.
10/05/12
You will be able to:
Understand the term life cycle and life cycle assessment
Consider how these aspects could be implemented in to your designs
14/06/12
You will be able to:
Develop your own sketching and rendering skills, resulting in your own unique style.
Reflection points
What have you actually achieved today?
How will this help within the following work?
Where and how could these skills be applied apart from this lesson?
What was most successful during the lesson?
What do you need to focus on to help you develop areas of weakness? How will you do this?
19/10/12
You will be able to:
Continue to adapt the skills you have developed to aid your design skills assessment
Crating and rendering
Crating - a simple box drawn in oblique, isometric, single point or two point perspective which allows you to add details inside the box once it is drawn.
you can use a backing sheet under your page and draw over some of the lines that show through to draw your crate. Once the crate is drawn you can continue to use the backing sheet to add details to your drawings. This method requires you to prepare backing sheets which are simply oblique grid paper or isometric grid paper.
Rendering
Rendering is the technique used to give 2D drawings a 3D effect. Rendering can be pen or computer based and can be used to apply different levels of effect.
You are to produce a presentation sheet on manufacturing. The sheet must include:
A detailed explanation of the manufacturing process/s used to produce your chosen product. Including if you consider the chosen process to be the best or not and why?
A basic explanation of the materials used and an explanation highlighting if these were the best materials to use.
Do not forget to consider the layout out of your work, are you going to use illustrator to produce a layout? or use an existing PP template?
Injection moulding
Common products
Buckets, vacuum cleaner parts, chaies, tv cases & phone cases.
Very complex shapes can be produced with high detail
Mass production of products with consistent quality which can be fully automated
The moulds for the machines can be very complex and made out of expensive materials making them very expensive
Initial setup cost for the process is high
Blow moulding
Common products
Bottles, petrol cans, large water containers, plastic lights, etc
Rapid method of producing hollow objects
Can be fully automated
Non-circular shapes can be produced
The moulds can be expensive to produce
Difficult to produce some shapes that do not allow easy removal from the mould
Rotational moulding
Common products
storage tanks, furniture, road signs and bollards, planters, pet houses, toys, bins and refuse containers,airplane parts, doll parts, road cones, footballs, helmets, canoes, rowing boats and kayak hulls
A range of sizes are possible from small items to large storage tanks
A one-piece item can be produced
the moulds are much cheaper to produce when compared to injection moulding
Cheaper moulds mean smaller production runs can be achieved (batches)
Different surface textures and patterns can be achieved by changing the surface of the mould
Only hollow shapes can be produced using this method
Can only produce simple 3D shapes
Extrusion
Common products
Pipes, poles, fishing lines, 3D filament, wotsits, Medical tubing, general purpose wire.
It can run continuously as long as the hopper is full of plastic to make very long lengths of products
Dies are cheap to manufacture making the whole process low cost
It can only produce continuous cross sectional type shapes and products
Compression moulding
Common products
Wellington boots, automotive exterior panels especially for commercial vehicles,Radio & appliance knobs, ash trays & electrical parts.
There is not very much waste material
Moulds and machinery are inexpensive when compared to injection moulding
A preform needs to be made to the correct size before the process begins
Mainly simple products are produced
Die casting
Common products
Engine blocks, automotive components (ie brakes, gears), iron base, aerospace components
The quality of finish of a product is far better than similar processes like sand casting. This is dependent on the quality of the mould.
Increased scales of production as the molten metals cools much quicker in the die. This allows for a short cycle and mass production of the products.
High quality products with greater accuracy and made from high quality materials
Extrusion
Materials such as polystyrene, nylon, polypropylene and polythene can be used in a process called extrusion. These are thermoplastics - this means when they are heated and then pressured in a mould they can be formed into different shapes and sections

A machine used to extrude materials is very similar to the injection moulding machine. A motor turns a thread which feeds granules of plastic through a heater. The granules melt into a liquid which is forced through a die, forming a long 'tube like' shape. The extrusion is then cooled and forms a solid shape. The shape of the die determines the shape of the tube.
Materials
polystyrene
nylon
polypropylene
polythene
Materials
polythene
PVC
Polypropylene
HDPE
Materials
Polymer (in powder form)
Materials
non-ferrous metals
zinc
copper
aluminium
magnesium
pewter
tin
Materials
Thermo setting resins either in the form of granules, putty-like masses, or preforms
Materials
polystyrene
nylon
polypropylene
polythene
12/11/12
You will be able to:
Justify your chosen product and its need to be developed
Use your prior knowledge to start section 1, Design brief and Key criteria
05/09/13
You will be able to:
Develop a basic understanding of the key issues of creating a well constructed drawing and develop techniques to show different material effects.
The term "consumer" refers to an individual who buys goods and services for personal use. The consumer makes the decision on whether to purchase a product or not; thus the consumer is the target of marketing strategies. From an economic perspective, consumer needs control the demands for goods and services. These needs may include unique wants, wishes and desires, as well as emotional attachments towards products and services.
The term "manufacturer" refers to a company who produces products/ services for consumers. The manufacturer makes the decisions on the final product using information from their intended user group thus the consumer needs are important to the manufacturer.
AS Coursework
Product Study
Strengths & Weaknesses
Analysis of chosen product
12 marks
Presented over 2 A3 pages
Within this section you should:
Analyes the strengths and weaknesses of your single selected product
Compare the product to other similar products including:
Function
Materials
Manufacturing
Ergonomics
Aesthetics
Cost
What is it that you are aiming for with your design?
Design examples:
Examples of measurements to consider:
Users that your design should accommodate:

Easy reach
Vehicle dashboards,
Shelving
Arm length,
Shoulder height
Smallest user: 5th percentile

Adequate clearance to avoid unwanted contact or trapping
Manholes,
Cinema seats
Shoulder or hip width,
Thigh length
Largest user: 95th percentile

A good match between the user and the product
Seats,
Cycle helmets,
Pushchairs
Maximum range: 5th to 95th percentile

A comfortable and safe posture
Lawnmowers,
Monitor positions,
Worksurface heights

Elbow height,
Sitting eye height,
Elbow height (sitting or standing?)
Maximum range: 5th to 95th percentile

Easy operation
Screw bottle tops,
Door handles,
Light switches
Grip strength,
Hand width,
Height
Smallest or weakest user: 5th percentile

To ensure that an item can't be reached or operated
Machine guarding mesh,
Distance of railings from hazard
Finger width

Arm length
Smallest user: 5th percentile
Largest user: 95th percentile
12/09/13
You will be able to:
Develop a basic understanding of google sketchup and rendering techniques that can be applied to your coursework
19/09/13
You will be able to:
Gain a clear understanding of orthographic drawings and the related signs and symbols
Develop your existing knowledge of 2D Design and the laser cutter
16/09/13
You will be able to
Develop your understanding of 2D Design, creating a 3D model and a third angle drawing of the Iphone
Investigate in to the properties of styro foam and how it can be used as a modeling material.
16/09/15
You will be able to
Identify and evaluate the marking criteria for the product focus and analysis section of the product study
Start to develop your own product focus using the knowledge gained from researching the required elements
zz
Orthographic drawing
An orthographic drawing, sometimes called a working drawing, is usually the last drawing produced by a designer. It normally has three accurate views of a product, a front view, side view and plan view. Dimensions (measurements) are also drawn on each view, ensuring the manufacturer can make the product to the precise size and the designers requirements. A parts list is also included. This has the precise measurements for every part of the product and includes details such as materials and finish.