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Skeletal System

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Renzie Concepcion

on 19 February 2016

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Transcript of Skeletal System

Skeletal System
Skeletal System
Framework for Shape
The skeletal sytem gives shape to the body.
For Support and Anchorage
The skeletal system supports the body weight.Without the bones, you cannot stand or sit erect.
Importance of Skeletal System
We are born of 270 bones and by adulthood some of them fused which makes the total adult skeletal system of 206 bones.
For Protection of Vital Organs
The skeletal system protects the body
by enclosing the vital organs such as the
brain, marrow, lungs, heart and other internal organs.

For Locomotion and Movement
The skeletal system permits movement and locomotion by responding to the contractive activities of skeletal muscles at certain joints. Skeletal muscles are muscles which attached to the bones.

References Slide 1-6
Organs and their function
Bone Structure
Bones are divided into two Divisions:

Axial- composed of 80 bones. Axial bones are the skull, vertebral column, rib cage.
Appendicular- composed of 126 bones. Apendicular bones are the: arms and legs, pectoral gridle, pelvic gridle.

Bones contain various kinds of tissues, including Osseous tissue, Blood vessels and Nerves
Osseous tissue may appear compact or spongy.
Bone Structure(cont)

Classification by Shape
Long Bones
located primarily in the arms and legs
Femur (thigh bone)
Humerus (upper arm bone)
Short Bones
small bones located in the wrists and ankles
Carpals (wrist bone)
Tarsals (ankle bone)
Flat Bones
located in the skull and rib cage
Frontal bone
Irregular Bones
have complicated shapes to be determined
Bones of the pelvic girdle
Two bone types
Cranial – form the top, sides, and back of the skull
Facial – form the face
Cranial Bones
Floor of the cranium, inferior to the frontal bone and anterior to the sphenoid. Forms part of the nasal cavity and the orbits.
Main support structure of the nasal cavity
Forehead, extending down to form the upper surfaces of the orbits. Anterior roof of the skull.
Back and base of the cranium, forms the back of the skull. The occipital condyles articulate with the atlas , enabling movement of the head relative to the spine. Has a large opening called the Foramen Magnus which the spinal cord passes through

Top and sides of the cranium, posterior roof of the skull.
Anterior to the temporal bones and forms the base of cranium - behind the orbitals. Consists of a body, two "wings" and two "pterygoid processes" that project downwards. Articulates with the frontal, parietal and temporal bones.
Sides of the skull, below the parietal bones, and above and behind the ears.
Facial Bone
In the neck, below the tongue (held in place by ligaments and muscles between it and the styloid process of the temporal bone). Supports the tongue, providing attachment sites for some tongue muscles, and also some muscles of the neck and pharynx.
Behind and lateral to the nasal bone, also contribute to the orbits.Contain foramina for the nasolacrimal ducts
Known as the lower jaw bone. Also forms the chin and sides of the face.Bone into which the lower teeth are attached. The only moveable facial bone; motion of this bone is necessary for chewing food. Each side of the mandible has a condyle and a coronoid process. The condyle articulates with the temporal bone to form the temporomandibular joint.
Upper jaw bone, which also forms the lower parts of the orbits. Bone into which the upper teeth are attached. Each maxilla contains a maxillary sinus that drains fluid into the nasal cavity.
Pair of small oblong bones that form the bridge and roof of the nose.
Back of the roof of the mouth (hence not illustrated above). Small "L-shaped" bones.Form the bottom of the orbitals and nasal cavities, and also the roof of the mouth.
Also known as Turbinate Bone and Nasal Concha. These terms refer to any of three thin bones that form the sides of the nasal cavity. Form the nasal cavities.
Thin roughly triangular plate of bone on the floor of the nasal cavity and part of the nasal septum. Separates the nasal cavities into left and right sides.
Also known as Zygoma and Malar Bone.Commonly (non-medically) referred to as the Cheek Bone because it forms the prominent part of the cheeks. Also contributes to the orbits. Articulates with the frontal, maxilla, sphenoid and temporal bones.
Reference slides 18-35

Function of the Skull
The human skull is the part of the skeleton that supports the structures of the face and forms a cavity for the brain .

Source: Boundless. “General Features and Functions of the Skull.” Boundless Anatomy and Physiology. Boundless, 21 Jul. 2015. Retrieved 29 Aug. 2015 from https://www.boundless.com/physiology/textbooks/boundless-anatomy-and-physiology-textbook/the-skeletal-system-7/the-skull-79/general-features-and-functions-of-the-skull-458-5063/
Spinal Column
The spine (also called the vertebral column or spinal column) is composed of a series of bones called vertebrae stacked one upon another.
the spinal column is consist of
7 cervical vertebrae
12 thoracic vertebrae
5 lumbar vertebrae

Cervical Vertebrae

The main function of the cervical spine is to support the weight of the head which is approximately 10-12 pounds. The cervical spine has the greatest range of motion, in part because of two specialized vertebra that move with the skull. Cervical vertebrae are the smallest of the vertebrae.
Thoracic vertebrae
The main function of the thoracic spine is to protect the organs of the chest, especially the heart and lungs. There are 12 thoracic vertebrae with one rib attached on each side, to create a thoracic cage, which protects the internal organs of the chest. The thoracic spine has a normal kyphosis, or “C” curve. The thoracic spine is less mobile than the cervical and lumbar spine because of the thoracic cage.
The lumbar spine has five lumbar vertebrae, which are the largest vertebrae. These vertebrae are also aligned in a reverse “C” like the cervical spine, creating a normal lumbar lordosis. The five lumbar vertebral bodies are the weight-bearing portion of the spine and are the largest in diameter compared to the thoracic and cervical vertebral bodies.
Lumbar Vertebrae
A triangular-shaped bone that consists of five fused vertebrae

A small, triangular-shaped bone made up of 3 to 5 fused vertebrae
Considered unnecessary
More commonly called the tailbone

12 pairs of ribs
All are attached posteriorly to thoracic vertebrae

First seven pairs of ribs
Attach to sternum by costal cartilage

Rib pairs 8, 9, and 10
Attach to the costal cartilage of rib pair 7
Rib pairs 11 and 12
Do not attach anteriorly to any structure

Forms the front middle portion of the rib cage
Joins with the clavicles and most ribs
Bones of the Shoulders, Arms, and Hands
Shoulder Bone

Clavicles - the clavicles, or collarbones, are a pair of long bones that connect the scapula to the sternum
Scapulae- The scapula is commonly referred to as the shoulder blade. It connects the humerus bone of the arm to the collarbone.

Upper limb or arm bones
Bones of the Hips, Legs, and Feet
Bone Growth
Concept Map
The radius is the more lateral and slightly shorter of the two forearm bones. It is found on the thumb side of the forearm and rotates to allow the hand to pivot at the wrist.
The humerus is the both the largest bone in the arm and the only bone in the upper arm.
The ulna is the longer, larger and more medial of the lower arm bones.
There are 8 carpals per hand. The carpus is slightly concave on the palmar side, forming a canal known as the carpal tunnel through which tendons, ligaments, and nerves extend into the palm.
There are 5 metacarpals per hand. Each metacarpal is numbered I to V with metacarpal I connecting to the bones of the thumb, II connecting to the index finger, and so on. Movement of the metacarpals by tiny muscles in the hand allows the palm to be stretched, compressed, and folded as needed.
3 in each finger and 2 in each thumb.The phalanges are long, slender bones that form hinge joints between each other. Phalanges that articulate with the metacarpals at the base of the digits are known as the proximal phalanges.

Coxal bones form the pelvic girdle

The ilium is the largest and most superior of the three bones that join to form the hipbone, or os coxa. It is a wide, flat bone that provides many attachment points for muscles of the trunk and hip.
The Ischium is the posterior inferior compart of the pelvis. Posteriorly, bony prominences form the ischial tuberosity or each side of the inner pelvis and support the body's weight in a sitting position.
The pubis is the lowest and most anterior portion of the hip bones of the pelvis.
Bones of the leg
Our teeth form part of the skeletal system, but are not counted as bones.
The hands and feet contain more than half the body's bones.
The smallest bone found in the human body is located in the middle ear. The staples (or stirrup) bone is only 2.8 millimetres (0.11 inches) long
The femur, or thigh bone, is the longest, heaviest, and strongest bone in the entire human body. All of the body’s weight is supported by the femurs during many activities.
The patella is the technical name for the kneecap, the triangular-shaped bone at the front of the knee joint. The patella protects the knee joint.
The tibia, sometimes known as the shin bone, is the larger and stronger of the two lower leg bones. It forms the knee joint with the femur and the ankle joint with the fibula and tarsus.
The fibula is the long, thin and lateral bone of the lower leg. It runs parallel to the tibia, or shin bone, and plays a significant role in stabilizing the ankle and supporting the muscles of the lower leg.
Bones of the feet
Secondary sources:
Signs and Symptoms
Scientists have not discovered the cause of most cases of osteosarcoma. Osteosarcoma can develop as a result of radiation to an area of the body. It can also be associated with specific genetic changes and diseases.
Most people with osteosarcoma do not feel sick. Patients may have a history of pain in the affected area and may have developed a limp. Often the pain is thought to be related to muscle soreness or "growing pains," but it does not go away with rest. Many patients only see a doctor when there is some sort of injury to the area or when the tumor weakens a bone so much that it breaks (this is called a pathological fracture).
An MRI of the entire bone where the primary tumor is located. This test can rule out "skip metastases".
A chest x-ray and CT scan of the chest to detect lung metastases
A bone scan of the body to rule out distant spread of the disease
A biopsy of the tumor, which provides a definite diagnosis based on the characteristics of tumor tissue seen under a microscope.
Osteosarcoma is often treated with a combination of therapies that can include surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Signs and Symptoms
Carpal tunnel syndrome usually starts gradually with numbness or tingling in your thumb, index and middle fingers that comes and goes. This may be associated with discomfort in your wrist and hand.
Carpal tunnel syndrome occurs as a result of compression of the median nerve.
History of symptoms
Physical Examination
Nerve conduction study
Nonsurgical therapy
Wrist splinting
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
Surgical Therapy
Endoscopic surgery
Open surgery
Signs and Symptoms
If you have bursitis, the affected joint may:

Feel achy or stiff
Hurt more when you move it or press on it
Look swollen and red

Consult your doctor if you have:
Disabling joint pain
Pain for more than one to two weeks
Excessive swelling, redness, bruising or a rash in the affected area
Sharp or shooting pain, especially when you exercise or exert yourself
A fever
The most common causes of bursitis are repetitive motions or positions that irritate the bursae around a joint.
Imaging tests
Lab tests
Injections. Corticosteroid drug
Assistive device.
Junctions between bones

Fibrous joints
Connected together with short fibers
Between cranial bones and facial bones
Sutures – fibrous joints in the skull
Cartilaginous joints
Connected together with a disc of cartilage
Between vertebrae
Synovial joints

Covered with hyaline cartilage
Held together by a fibrous joint capsule lined with synovial membrane
Secretes synovial fluid so bones move easily against each other
Freely movable
Bones are also held together through tough, cord-like structures called ligaments

– process of bone growth

Intramembranous ossification
Bones begin as tough, fibrous membrane
Bone-forming cells called osteoblasts turn the membrane to bone (located in skull)

Endochondral ossification
Bones begin as cartilage models
Primary ossification center
Bone formed in the diaphysis
Secondary ossification center
Epiphyses turn to bone
Bones with some cartilage between an epiphysis and the diaphysis will continue to grow
Medullary cavity and spaces in cancellous bone form
Cells that form holes in bone are called osteoclasts

The forefoot contains the five toes (phalanges) and the five longer bones (metatarsals).
The forefoot contains the five toes (phalanges) and the five longer bones (metatarsals).
The midfoot is a pyramid-like collection of bones that form the arches of the feet. These include the three cuneiform bones, the cuboid bone, and the navicular bone.
The hindfoot forms the heel and ankle. The talus bone supports the leg bones (tibia and fibula), forming the ankle. The calcaneus (heel bone) is the largest bone in the foot.
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