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The Evolution of a Jaguar

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Taylor Jones

on 19 February 2013

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Transcript of The Evolution of a Jaguar

The Evolution Of A Jaguar By: Taylor Jones Taxonomy Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Mammalia Carnivora Felidae Panthera Panthera (Italicize) onca (Italicize) Characteristics Characteristics Characteristics Characteristics Characteristics Characteristics Characteristics Multicellular
Eukaryotic Notochord (internal supportive skeletal rod)
Cartilaginous Endoskeleton
Complete Digestive System Endothermic
Four chambered Heart Carnassial Pair (teeth for cutting meat)
Zygomatic Arch (large braincase) Retractable Claws
Sexual Dimorphism (one sex is larger than the other)
Digitigrade (posture that results in greater stride rate and strong limbs) Anatomical structure that allows them to roar
Much larger build than their Felis brothers "Jaguar" Clusters of black spots inside of circles
Round Pupil
Larger lower canines http://biology.buffalo.edu/courses/bio531/lecture6.html
http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Chordata/
http://www.preservearticles.com/2011082011055/characteristics-of-class-mammalia.html
http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Carnivora/
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/311/5757/73.full

http://library.sandiegozoo.org/factsheets/jaguar/jaguar.htm Adaptations Morphological
Adaptations Large head, large canines, and a modified jaws are all used to pierce the skulls of their prey.
The Panthera (Italicize) onca (Italicize) has spotted fur that acts as camouflage in their environment of dense forests The sunlight is patched, which matches the areas of a yellow color in their coat.
Well padded paws allows barely any noise while stalking their prey.
A mirror like layer in the eyes, called a tapetum lucidum, gives the Panthera (Italicize) onca (Italicize) much better vision in the night. Making hunting in those hours an advantage.
Their smaller size allows them to climb trees, which saves them from flash forest floods.
They have very rough tongues that allow them to peel away the flesh from their prey.
The lose stomach skin allows them to prevent any injuries to their abdominal. Behavioral
Adaptations The Panthera (Italicize) onca (Italicize) is the only Panthera (Italicize) that attacks the back of the head instead of the jugular, because it has a more definite kill rate.
They use the tip of their tail to wade in the water, so that it will attract fish.
Panthera (Italicize) onca (Italicize) stays in dense forests where the amount of prey is high, and where there is heavy ambush cover. http://whozoo.org/Intro2001/amansaut/Amanda_Jaguar.html
http://www.buzzle.com/articles/jaguar-adaptations.html
http://books.google.com/books?id=UxWZ-OmTqVoC&pg=PA62&lpg=PA62&dq=characteristics+of+panthera+genus&source=bl&ots=RDpRJo1tl1&sig=Ky8p6O65__YnzZbxMU0eJKs7Y4I&hl=en&sa=X&ei=joodUbCTDeOMygHahoCwDw&ved=0CDAQ6AEwADgK#v=onepage&q=characteristics%20of%20panthera%20genus&f=false
http://www.denverzoo.org/downloads/dzoo_jaguar.pdf
http://www.gambassa.com/public/project/2736/JulietteCooleyJaguar.html Charles Darwin Biography Charles Robert Darwin lived (Feb. 12, 1809-1882)
He was a English Naturalist.
Developed his theory of Natural Selection during a five year voyage.
He published his theory "On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection" in 1859. Darwin's Evolutionary Theory Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection presents the idea that species change when an environment calls for it. This process may take many generations to complete. He developed this theory on a five year, around the world, voyage. Darwin studied the animals he found along the way and took note of the differences he found between otherwise similar animals. This pushed him to create his theory of natural selection. For many years after, he sat on his work, until a man by the name, A.Wallace, sent him the same theory that Wallace had gathered himself. This made Darwin decide to publicly present this theory at a convention with the help of Wallace. Contributions The theory of natural selection contributed greatly to the science world later, by explaining evolution through natural selection, and how life might have been, and came to be. Criticism The science community believed that nothing new was discovered, therefore not important.
The church refused to accept his idea because it suggested that humans were just evolved animals. Stephen J. Gould Biography Criticism Gould's Punctuated Equilibrium Gould's punctuated equilibrium theory hopes to explain why there are gaps in fossil records among evolving species. This theory states that among a species, a small group that is geographically separated, forms into a new species. But because this area is so small we haven't found the particular missing links that were created there. Once the small group has formed into a new species and is, by natural selection, "better," they will move back over and bombard the original species they broke off from. Creating a rapid burst of new species among the fossils in that area. Stephen J Gould lived (1941-2002)
He was a paleontologist, educator at Harvard University, and a spokes-person for the evolutionary theory.
Gould created the theory of "Punctuationalism" by studying fossil records where random bursts of fossils were present, instead of gradual, steady fossils.
This was widely accepted by the 1980's. Many people criticized that Gould's theory was something that had already been presented by other scientists, and was an act of trying to disprove Darwin's theory, but Gould disagreed. He believed that it was not meant to disprove Darwin's theory, nor had it been presented before, but that it was simply an extra explanation or branch of Darwin's natural selection. Contributions Gould opened doors for a paleontology outlook on evolution.
Reopened research further into evolution. Evolutionary Theories While both Darwin's and Gould's evolutionary theories are on the same topic; evolution, both have contrasting points. Time length is a big one. If time differences didn't exists, Gould would have nothing to base his theory off of. Gould started his theory in a hole that Darwin left in his. Darwin theorized that evolution occurs over long gradual, periods of time, but Gould found that it is not the case in some fossil records, where new species seem to boom in a short length of time. Comparing Darwin's and Gould's Theory Evolutionary Behavior Communication The Panthera (Italicize) onca (Italicize) vocalizes through grunts that vary in frequencies and tones. Depending on the reason they wish to communicate, changes the number of grunts. Mating System Females let themselves be known by calling out to males in the surrounding territories. males answer that call by making his own vocalizations and venturing into her territory. There can be several males that come to take the place as her mate, but the smaller males are usually driven away by the larger males. After mating, females will not allow the presence of a male, especially after birth. Altruistic Behavior The Panthera (Italicize) onca (Italicize) is a highly territorial animal, that doesn't allow much social interaction with their own species, unless they're mating, or taking care of their young. This means that Jaguars do not have any altruistic behavior and the likely hood of a Panthera (Italicize) onca (Italicize) giving sacrifices for another, is almost never. http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Panthera_onca/ Citations for Evolutionary Behavior Information Pictures Citations for Taxonomy Information Pictures Citations for Adaptions Information Pictures Citations for Evolutionary Theories Information: Darwin http://darwin-online.org.uk/darwin.html
http://www.visionlearning.com/library/module_viewer.php?mid=110 Information: Gould http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/03/5/l_035_01.html
http://www.stephenjaygould.org/ Pictures http://endlesscancun.blogspot.com/2011/01/jaguar-mexicos-big-cat.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jaguar http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/What-Darwin-Didnt-Know.html
http://www.nytimes.com/imagepages/2002/05/20/obituaries/20cnd-gould.1.html http://webpages.charter.net/extremejaguar/test_link%204.html
http://www.wallpapersofanimals.com/baby-jaguar-desktop-wallpaper/
http://meowfund.tumblr.com/post/13312591726/10-interesting-facts-about-big-cats http://sparkleberrysprings.com/v-web/b2/?p=445 Evolutionary History Ancestral Roots The Panthera (Italicize) onca (Italicize) augusta (Italicize) was one of the first Jaguars, and were much larger than the rest of its descendents.
Many of the Jaguar's ancestral roots have appeared in Eurasia where fossils have been found dating back 2 million years.
The Panthera (Italicize) gombaszoegensist (Italicize) are the fossil remains of early Jaguars that date back about 1.5 million years ago in Europe, marking their move into Western Europe.
Early Jaguars also crossed the Bering land bridge to make it into North America. These were larger, but gradually reduced in size due to the dense forests they started to inhabit. Types of Structures Analogous structures- These are body structures that preform the same actions and look similar, but the internal structure is completely different. These animals do not share a recent ancestor.
Vestigial structures- Body structures that show gradual changes over time, but have reduced or lost their use.
Homologous structures- These are the body structures that form the same way and share similar structure patterns but can be different form and preform different tasks. Animals with homologous structures can share a somewhat recent common ancestor. Jaguars and humans have homologous structures in their forearms. Both share a comparable bone structure of the ulna, radius, humerus, and the carpals.
Jaguars and horses have differently formed vertebrae in their spines.
Jaguars and humans both have thumbs, but this is analogous because they are a formation off two different separate structures.
A vestigial structure of the Panthera (Italicize) onca (Italicize) is the presence of nipples among the males. Structures in Jaguars Citations for Evolutionary History http://dialspace.dial.pipex.com/agarman/bco/evolution.htm
http://www.explorebiology.com/documents/LE/LabEvidenceofEvolution2008.pdf
http://listverse.com/2010/12/02/10-huge-prehistoric-cats/
http://pets.thenest.com/male-cats-nipples-9562.html Pictures http://prehistoric.ucoz.ru/publ/bestiary/panthera_gombaszoegensis/2-1-0-248
http://virtuallaboratory.colorado.edu/Biofundamentals-2012/lectureNotes-Revision/Topic1I_Evo.htm (Italicize)
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