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Chemistry of Life
Transcript of Chemistry of Life
Unsaturated Saturated lipids only have single bonds and are solids at room temperature. ex: peanut oil Unsaturated lipids can have at least one double bond and
at room temperature they are liquids. ex: olive oil Carbohydrates are used as your main source of energy. Some examples of carbohydrates: Glucose Galactose. Fructose Starch Carbohydrates are also used for structural support. Function: Store energy and has a water proof cover. Nucleic Acids Function: store and transmit hereditary, or
genetic information. Monomer: Nucleotides There are two kinds of nucleic acids:
Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) Nucleic acids contain Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen,
Carbon, and phosphorus atoms. A nucleotide consists of three parts:
A 5-carbon sugar
A phosphate group
A nitrogenous base Proteins Function: there are four roles that proteins play in living things:
Carry out chemicla reactions
Transport small molecules in and out of cells
Form bones and muscles Proteins contain Nitrogen as well as Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen atoms. Proteins are polymers of molecules called Amino acids. Examples: Hemoglobin and Enzymes. You get your nucleic acids from your parents. Dehydration Synthesis Monomers create macromolecules by covalently bonding.
-These bonds are formed by dehydration synthesis.
*Making something with water. Example: Carbohydrates
2 monosaccharicles coming together.
Glucose+Fructose=Sucruse (table sugar)
Loses water starch Starches and sugars are examples of carbohydrates. ATP Starch is used for energy and structural support for plants, exoskeletons of insects and crustaceans. Q: Can you tell that an ATP molecule is an ATP molecule?
A: An ATP monecule has 3 phosphorus atoms in it. The purpose of this molecule is to give the body energy. When you break the 3rd phosphorus from the 2nd phosphorus it makes energy. Monosaccharides or simple sugars include glucose, galactose, and fructose. Some polysaccharides are cellulose, chitin, and glycogen. Fruits, nuts, vegetables, and grains have starch in them. Four Macromolecules Enzyme Emymes are also molecules that are proteins and act as biological catalysts. DNA Definition: DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid. It contains our heredity from our parents and it makes us who we are. Every organism has DNA. DNA is a nucleic acid Condensation Definition:A state of being from a liquid, to a solid, and to gas(condensation). Example: water is a liquid that transforms to a gas. (water on the outside of a glass). Molecules Definition: A small substance that contains atoms and bonds. evrything has molecules in them. Enzymes control the functions of a cell Emzymes fit with substrates that are reactants in chemical reactions and when they fit together, they are called an active site when temperature changes and changes in pH from neutral may transform the shape of an enzyme and their active sites so the enzyme won't work. RNA Definition: RNA stands for ribonucleic acid. It tansfers genetic information so proteins can be made. RNA and DNA are almost the same. But they have different jobs Carbon Definition: A chemical element. Carbon is a non- metal. Every living thing needs carbon to live Carbon is in all the marcromolecules Carbon has 6 protons, 6 electrons, and 6 neutrons in its atom. Polysaccharide Definition: Large macromolecules formed from monosaccharides. long chains of sugars are polysaccharides Cellulose, Chitin, ad Glycogen are polysaccharides Elements Defintion: Molecules that contain substances in them and creat chemical reactions. Every element is on the Periodic Table of Elements. But some are still not found. elements can be found anywhere Hormone Definition: chemical substances that act as a messenger in the bodyand controlls cells and organs. Hormones can be a physical process you use in life. Hormones help digestion, metabolism, growth, reproduction, and mood control Monomer Definition: A molecule that can be formed into a polymer. Proteins have amin acids as their monomers Inorganic Molecule Definition: Molecules that are not living but is in nature or earth. It doesn't have carbon in it. Examples: water(H2O) , oxygen, ect. Organic Molecule Definition: A molecule that is found or produced in living systems. It has carbon in it. Examples: Polymers, hydrocarbons, and ect. Oxygen Definition: A molecule thats and oderless gas. Example: air Oxygen is an atom and it has 8 protons, 8 electrons, and 8 neutrons Hydrogen Definition: An element that is the lightest of elements and odorless. Hydrogen has 1 proton, 1 electron, and 0 neutrons Polymer Definition: A compound made up of many reapeating monomers. Macromolecules are known as polymers Phosphorus Definition: An element that is a toxic flammable material. Nucleic acids have phosphorus A non-metal element Phosphorus has 15 protons, 15 electrons, and 16 neutrons Phospholipid Definition: A lipid that help make up cell membranes. Their are 2 layers of phospholipids:
"Water-loving" hydrophilic head
2 "water- fearing" hydrophobic tails Hemoglobin Definition: A red protein that transports oxygen in the blood of vertebrates. Hemoglobin is an example of poteins Glucose Definition: A simple sugar or monosaccharides. Glucose is an example of carbohydrates Cellulose Definition: A polysaccharide having a linear chain. Cellulose is an example of carbohydrades Hydrolysis Definition: Chemical breackdown of a compound when with reaction of water. Monosaccharide Definition: small subunits or monomers. Monosaccharide is a monomer of carbohydrades Nitrogen Definition: A non- metal thats colorless, odrless gas. Nitrogen has 7 protons, 7 electrons, and 7 neutrons. Nitrogen is in proteins and in nucleic acids Macromolecules Definition: small organic molecules of a unit of large organic molecules. Their are 4 Macromolecules:
Nucleic Acids Oxygen is in all the macromolecules Chemistry of Life All vocabulary words that was set to learn about whats in life. Chemistry of life