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Transcript of Australian English
Van Diemen's Land ''Free'' provinces. Tasmania. Gold Rush: 1850 Internal migration spreads the dialect ''Independence'' 1986 Australian E. was first spoken by the children of the colonist born in New South Wales. They were influenced by a wide range of dialects; In particular, from Ireland and South East England. 25% of the convicts were Irish. Gold Rush:South East England migration waves. Aboriginal languages borrowings. North American influences: Gold Rush: Usage,spelling,words. WWII:American military personnel.
Films. No official language: Australian English 'De facto' national Language 2011 census: 81% -- English.
1.7% -- Mandarin.
1.5% -- Italian
1.4% -- Arabic
1.3% -- Cantonese
1.3% -- Greek
1.2% -- Vietnamese A considerable portion of the population is bilingual. The most common languages spoken at home by children after English: Arabic, followed by Vietnamese, Greek, Chinese, and Hindi Aboriginal Languages: Originally: 200-300 Languages. 70 survived. Spoken by all ages: 18. Auslan: Sign language for deaf people. Cultivated or N.RP Australian. Broad Australian. General Australian. It is a non-rhotic accent. One of the most regionally homogeneous language variety in the world. Dipthongs
Monophthong The vowels can be divided according to length: Long vowels: Monophthongs and diphthongs.--R.P.Tense vowels.
Short vowels:Monophthongs.--RP lax vowels Some examples: Vowel Examples: /i/ kit, bid, hid
Happy, city /i:/ peen,keen Happee, citee /e/ dress, bed, head :for some Victorian Speakers /æ/
Thus, Salary and Celery are pronounced alike. /æ/ trap, lad, had They are pronounced the same. ɔʊ / / strut, bud, hud It does not change. / / lot, cloth, body, hot Almost like 'gold' / / It does not change.
foot, hood / / It does not change. about, winter fleece, bead, heat /i:/ onset to the high front vowel /ii/ near, beard, hear / / It does not change. / / square, bared, haired It does not change. /æ:/ For some speaker it will change to
/e/ before nasals "jam", "man", "dam" and "hand. /ei/ /ai/ face, bait, hade /au/ mouth, bowed, how’d /æu/ /ai/ / / i price, bite, hide-->Like 'boy'. -Cockney influence. /o/ thought, north, sure, board, hoard, poor goose, boo, who’d /u:/ /u: / /3:/ /3:/ nurse, bird, heard / :/ And more: Non-rhoticity the 'r' is nos pronounced after vowel. e.g. Car /ka:/ Linking 'r' The sound 'r' can occur between vowels. e.g. The car alarm. / di ka: r ala:m/ Intrusive 'r' The 'r' can occur when there is not an 'r' in any word. e.g. saw it would sound like 'sore it' Flapping 't' After a stressed syllable and before unstressed vowels the 't' sounds like an 'r'.
e.g. butter. T glottalisation An allophone of 't' in the final position. e.g. The final 't' is not pronounced, instead there is a glottal stop.button Yod dropping /tj/ and /dj/ changes to/ts/ and /d3/.E.g: /tsu:n/ and /d3u:n/
June would sound like 'tune' and 'dune' High rising intonation In questions, there is an upward inflection at the end of the sentence, this is used in normal statements in AusE. Spelling: They follow the British spelling, but there are some exception. Honour instead of Honor. 're' rather than 'er: centre. Program instead of Programme.
Inquire instead of enquire. Grammar: Formal grammar following Br.English. There is almost no difference between Aus.E. and other grammars like Am.E grammar and Br. grammar.Different features:
I shall cut it
I should go I will cut it
I would go Negation of used to: He used not to fight He usen't to fight Use of I've got instead of I have:
'I've got a new bike' instead of
'I have a new bike'. Collective nouns
The government 'has' instead of 'have' Lexis Australian English has many words and idioms which unique to this region: Outback:meaning a remote, sparsely populated area The bush: meaning either a native forest or a country area in general, Fair Dinkum: 'isn't that true? Dinky-di Aussie: 'True Australian'.
Diminutives: arvo (afternoon) barbie (barbecue) smoko (cigarette break) Aussie (Australian) pressie (present/gift) Incomplete comparison in informal speech: "That car is sweet as." "Full", "fully" or "heaps" as intensifiers:
''The waves at the beach were heaps good.'' There is a superiority of British words over the American ones; But American words can be found as well. 'Frying pan' instead of 'Skillet'. 'Eggplant'(AmEng) instead of 'Aubergine'.
'Zucchini'(Ame) instead of ''Courgette''. Sources http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australian_English_phonology
Variation in australian English / Barbara M. Horvarth
Cambridge [etc.] : University Press, 1985
THANK YOU! Aboriginal borrowings:Kangaroo, Dingo.
'Hard yakka' means 'Hard work'. Irish origins: 'Sheila' is a slang term that means 'woman.'It comes from the Irish girls' name Síle.