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Japan SE Asia P 4 Global Review 2012

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sean meade

on 27 May 2014

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Transcript of Japan SE Asia P 4 Global Review 2012

SE Asia

Japan is an island that is part of an archipelago on the Pacific coast of Asia
The terrain of Japan is very mountainous and rugged. Approximately 73% of the land has mountains. The tallest mountain is Mt. Fuji, which is at an elevation of 12,338 feet
There is very little habitable and arable land in Japan, so the terrain has been modified by humans for many years. Dikes and drainage were utilized to reclaim land from the sea and river deltas. Rice paddies were built on terraces carved into mountainsides
The largest river is the Shinano River, which flows into the Sea of Japan and is only 367 kilometers long
There are numerous hot springs in Japan as well
Developed in Japan around 500 BCE from a mixture of tribal religions with similar beliefs
Shintoism is currently practiced in mostly Japan
Significant writings are Kokiji, or Record of Ancient Matters and Nikong, or Chronicles of Japan
Shinto shrines are usually located near sites of impressive natural beauty or places of historical importance to Japan
The Emperor of Japan was considered to be a descendant of the Sun Goddess who created the Japanese islands. Therefore, the Emperor was considered to be divine by the people (this would later help with propaganda during WWII). After Japan surrendered to the US in WWII, Emperor Hirohito renounced his divinity and political authority
Shinto teaches that there is a sacredness of the whole universe and that humans can be in tune with this sacredness. Every mountain, plant, animal, and all diverse phenomena of heaven and earth have spirits, or kami, which inhabit them. Reverence is paid to the ancestors through ancestor worship
Buddha- "enlightened one"
Founder of Buddhism
Reincarnation occurs (samsara) until Nirvana (spiritual enlightenment) is reached
Enlightenment can be realized
Four Noble Truths:
1) Life is full of pain and suffering
2) Human desire causes this suffering
3) Ending desires can end suffering
4) Humans can end desire by following the Eightfold Path
Developed in India
Most common in Japan & Southeast Asia
Significant writings: Tripitka ("Three Baskets of Wisdom")
Dalai Lama=spiritual leader of Tibetan sect of Buddhism
Founder-Lao Tze
Developed in China around 500 BCE
Still practiced in Southeast Asia
Tao="the way"
People should passively accept the ways of nature
Link between people and nature
Meiji Restoration
In 1853, the US sent a fleet of ships under the command of Commodore Mathew Perry to Japan in order to end the nation's self-imposed isolation and open it to trade. Nationalistic feelings led the daimyo and samurai to rebel against the Tokugawa Shogunate and restore the emperor to power. The Tokugawa Shogunate was the feudal rulers of Japan who were responsible for closing it off from the rest of the world.
Emperor Meiji began a process of rapid modernization and industrialization to strengthen Japan against western control. Japanese scholars were sent abroad to learn as much as possible about the west. Feudalism was abandoned in favor of a written constitution and the establishment of modern mechanized armed forces. They were able to fully industrialize in less than 50 years.
Within a few short years, Japan became a strong industrial and military power, and began a series of military conquests across Asia
Early Japan
Early culture was greatly influenced by Korean and Chinese civilization, and Korea often acted as a bridge between the other two. This method of cultural diffusion lasted from the early 100s CE until around 600 CE. At this point, Japan began to have direct contact with China, which was ruled by the Tang Dynasty. For the next 500 years, Japan selectively borrowed aspects of Chinese civilization while maintaining their own unique culture
Selective Borrowing
The Chinese system of writing was carried to Japan by the Koreans. It was later modified by adding Kana, which are phonetic symbols representing syllables. Japan also adopted Buddhist and Confucian ideas with Zen Buddhism becoming very popular among the people. Cultural ideas such as tea drinking, and the elaborate tea ceremony were also adapted from China, as well as the architectural designs for the pagoda
Feudal Japan
Japan's feudal period lasted from the 12th century to the 19th century
During this period, society was divided into different classes. At the top was the Emperor, although he had very little real power. Japan was ruled by the Shogun, who was a military leader with near absolute control. The shogun distributed lands to his loyal vassals, who were called daimyo. The daimyo then granted lands to to their warriors, the samurai. Samurai lived according to the code of conduct known as bushido, which was very strict. A disgraced samurai was expected to perform seppuku (commit suicide) in order to maintain his family's honor. The most successful was the Tokugawa Shogunate, which ruled Japan from 1603 to 1868. Under their leadership, there was a time of peace and stability in which the economy was strengthened, agriculture and commerce were improved, and intellectual accomplishments occurred
Arts and Literature
The Japanese developed Nô theatre, in which men wore decorative mask and performed on stage, while a chorus sang the lines. It reflected Buddhist ideals such as resisting selfish behavior. In the 1600s, Kabuki theatre began in which the stories were usually comedic or melodramatic presentations of everyday life or historic events.
Japanese literature appeared in many forms, most prominent being the Haiku. A Haiku is a 3 line poem that has 17 syllables in the Japanese language, that expresses a single thought, feeling or idea. Other forms of literary achievement include stories of war and conflict, and a few books written by women.
Japanese art reflected strong Chinese influence. Landscape painting was popular, with Japanese artist developing their own styles and tastes. They developed wood block printing that produced colorful prints available to the middle class and commoners
Japanese Empire
1905 Treaty of Portsmouth, Japan earned:
Chinese port city and trading rights
Control of Manchuria in China
Korea became its protectorate
Annexation of the island of Sakhalin
Japan was emerging as a world-class power using western technology, but still maintaining its cultural values
During the early 1900s, Japan practiced imperialism throughout Asia. A campaign to rid Asia of European imperialism was waged in which Japan occupied nations once held by the French, British, and the Dutch. Native leaders were installed as puppet governments that were manipulated by the Japanese.
By 1940, Japan announced that it would form a Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere which encouraged Asian nations to resist western imperialists in order to contribute to the industrial needs of the Japanese war machine
Post-War Success
Japan's imperialistic ambitions brought the nation into conflict with the US in WWII. After losing WWII, Japan was occupied by the US during which time democratic reforms were instituted. The emperor was forced to renounce divinity and the Japanese armed forced were disbanded. A parliamentary democracy was established and the US provided economic aid to rebuild infrastructure. Soon, Japan demonstrated economic prowess without taking advantage of its Asian neighbors through imperialism. By the 1980s, Japan was being compared to the US and West Germany as one of the great economic powers of the world.
The Dutch and Spanish controlled much of South East Asia during the early 1800s. The Dutch East Indies was renowned for its rich soil which allowed the harvesting of a variety of profitable crops such as coffee, pepper, cinnamon, sugar, indigo, and tea. Mines were formed to exploit rich deposits of tin and copper. Forestry yielded valuable timber including teak, ebony, and other hardwoods.
The Dutch became notorious for the use of forced slave labor, known as the culture system, to gather these raw materials, while purposely discouraging westernization
The Spanish used similar methods to reap the rewards fromt heir tobacco and sugar plantations located in the Philippine Islands. However, in 1898, the Philippines were given to the Us as part of a settlement for their loss in the Spanish-American War
The British took control of Burma from their colonial stronghhold in India in the early 1800s. Meanwhile, the French imperialized modern-day Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam forming the French Indochina in the 1880s. Siam became the embattled buffer zone between these two European powers, but was eventually guaranteed its independence by a treaty negotiated between France and Great Britain.
In order to gain natural resources to help fuel its industrialization, Japan invaded mainland Korea in order to exploit the natural resources there
Japan rook over much of the coast of China and the rest of Southeast Asia. East Asian raw materials such as oil from the Dutch East Indies and rubber from French Indochina kept Japan's manufacturing industry and military in China well supplied.
The French left Indochina in the 1950s after years of warfare with nationalist groups. Communism seemed destined to spread into the region from China. The Us foreign policy of the containment of communism would lead to their involvement in the area in the unpopular Vietnam Conflict. Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos all eventually became communist in the 1970s.
In Cambodia, the Khmer Rouge orchestrated mass killing of intellectuals and so-called reactionaries which became known as the Killing Fields
All of South East Asia falls within warm, humid tropics, and its climate can be generally characterized as monsoonal
Southeast Asia consists of two geographical regions: Mainland Southeast Asia, also known as Indochina, comprises Cambodia, Laos, Burma, Thailand, and Vietnam. The Malay Archipelago comprises Brunei, East Malaysia, East Timor, Indonesia, Philippines, Christmas Island, and Singapore
In December 1941, Japan attacked the Allied Powers at Pearl Harbor and several other points throughout the Pacific. Japan was able to expand its control over a large territory that expanded to the borders of India in the West and New Guinea in the South within the following six months
The turning point of the war was the Battle of Midway in June 1942. From then on, the Allied forces slowly won back the territories occupied by Japan. In 1944, extensive air raids started over Japan. In Spring 1945, US forces invaded Okinawa in one of the world's bloodiest battles. Iwo Jima was also a very bloody battle for both sides.
On July 27, 1945, the Allied powers requested Japan in the Potsdam Declaration to surrender unconditionally, or destruction would continue. However, the military did not consider surrendering under such terms, partially even after the US military forces dropped two atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6th and 9th. The Soviet Union entered the war against Japan on August 8 as well.
Zen Buddism
Japanese Feudal System
Pearl Harbor
Yamato Clan
Prince Shotuko
Heian Period
Noble families moved to Heian and
established a refined court society
Lady Murasaki
#5 – Tokugawa Ieyasu
Founded a shogunate bearing his name in 1600
1st person to unify Japan
Created a feudal monarchy in Japan
Began period of Japanese isolation
Banned Christianity & expelled Christian missionaries
Limited trade to the port of Nagasaki
Art & Architecture #3
Answers to Art & Architecture
(Pictures listed clockwise from upper left)
Arabs (Dome of the Rock, Prophets Mosque, cartography, mosaic, calligraphy)
France (Palace of Versailles, Notre Dame Cathedral, Arc de Triumph, Impressionist painting)
Japan (Osaka castle, samurai painting, Ukioye woodblock painting)
Benin or West Africa (Ivory mask, copper sculptures, Portuguese saltcellar)
Byzantine Empire (Byzantine mosaic, Hagia Sophia, the Hippodrome, mosaics of Justinian & Jesus)
Mughal Empire (Taj Mahal, Mughal paintings, Mughal fort, Akbar’s tomb)
Mesoamerica (Aztec god, Mayan pyramid, Aztec sacrifice, Olmec head)
Russia (St. Basil’s Cathedral, Painting of Peter the Great, the Winter Palace, socialist realism)
Southeast Asia (Angkor Wat, Cambodian Buddha, bas relief of Vishnu & statues at Angkor Wat)
China (Buddhist carvings along the Silk Road, painting of Empress Wu, Song dynasty painting, the Great Wall, Ming porcelain, the Forbidden City)
Abbasid Caliphate
Post 1868…
Japan sought to get industrial technology by any means necessary!
- Hire foreign consultants (British = steel workers, Americans = Railroad engineers…)
- Send Japanese to study overseas
- Send out ambassadors to find technology
- Study industry and military world leaders of the time (Germany = military organization, Britain = naval tactics and warships)
They want to buy British warships and reverse-engineer them!
Japan Emerges
In 1905 President Roosevelt negotiates a treaty with Japan to end the war… Japan has arrived! Britain that same year also signs a treaty to defend Hong Kong port…
World War I – Japan helps the Allies, particularly by sending supplies to Russia. Japan uses the war to gain economic and political influence in East Asia.
The Depression Hits…
The Great Depression hits Japan in the 1930’s = millions lose their jobs = starving… People started to look to strong military leaders to solve their problems… The army grows confident…
In 1932 army officers assassinated the prime minister, he dared to oppose their views… By 1937 the army and government had become one in the same.
The military favored a return to more traditional ways (i.e. away from western influence…).
The military’s dreams of a Japanese Empire (similar to Germany and Italy) brought the world to another world war…
Post 1868…
All of this is VERY EXPENSIVE = the average Japanese citizen is HEAVILY taxed!
The Samurai ethic remains in the army that is devoted to the emperor
The Japanese study other constitutions and in 1889 they adopt their own constitution: The Meiji Constitution
1853: Japan is closed off and feudal with little worldly
contact… there is no industry!
By 1905 Japan is industrialized with war ships…
1853 Fallout
A U.S.-Japan treaty is made, which means extra territoriality for America (Americans see the Japanese as uncivilized… they can’t trust Japanese laws…)
France and Britain hear of the treaty = everyone into Japan to take advantage of them!

This causes a political
stir in Japan…
1868: The political stir leads to the Meiji Restoration
- Samurai’s decide to overthrow the Tokugawa rule so that they will not be taken over…
- They also wanted to restore full power back to the emperor (Emperor Meiji)
Meiji wanted an industrial revolution by any means AND FAST!!!
- He needs steel for rifles and battle ships
- The industrial revolution is job #1, so everyone must help in the effort
Sino-Japanese War of 1894 (Sino=Chinese) – Japan wins and takes over Taiwan until 1945
Russo-Japanese War 1904-5 – Japan starts looking at Manchuria, a Chinese province… It has gold and iron-ore (materials for a industrial revolution)
- China cannot defend… in 1904 Russian and Japanese forces collide (Russia is looking for a port).,, Japan pulls a surprise attack against the Russian fleet and annihilates them… Russia sends a Baltic fleet (that takes 1 year to get there)… It too is defeated!
- Land Fighting – Japan holds out vs. the Russians, but its bloody.
External Tensions
Despite its gains, Japan felt the west did not accept it as an equal. The League of Nations continually snubbed Japan, America limited Japanese Immigration (1924)…
Japan then boycotts American goods…
Internal Tensions
Social Tensions
After WWI there’s a population explosion in Japan (1872=35m, 1925=60m)… America has cut immigration… raw materials are needed… problem…
Urban centers grew, as well as the urban middle class.
Democracy remained limited though; power remained in the hand of nobles and urban industrialists.
The Rise of Japan
Japan in the 19th Century
1853 Fallout
1853: Matthew Perry, an American Naval Commander, sailed to Japan with a message from President Filmore… he used steam ships…
The Japanese called it the “Black Fleet” because of its smoke… They realized that this fleet could easily destroy them…
Post 1868…
No more feudal system, in comes:

- Railroads
- A postal system
- Telegraph lines
A national currency (Yen)
A school system – to train as many people as possible…

ALL would be needed for growth and industry.

These schools also taught devotion to the emperor…
External Tensions
Plus, Japan and the west both had different views on China; Japan wanted close ties, the west wanted it open…
…and so it begins…
1 - America starts limiting what Japan could buy…
2 – Ends the sales of scrap iron and steel…
3 – Trade restrictions…
4 – Frozen assets due to Japan invading Indochina…
5 – Cut off oil shipments…
July 1940
Japan on the Offensive…
Buddha- "enlightened one"
Founder of Buddhism
Reincarnation occurs (samsara) until Nirvana (spiritual enlightenment) is reached
Enlightenment can be realized
Four Noble Truths:
1) Life is full of pain and suffering
2) Human desire causes this suffering
3) Ending desires can end suffering
4) Humans can end desire by following the Eightfold Path
Developed in India
Most common in Japan & Southeast Asia
Significant writings: Tripitka ("Three Baskets of Wisdom")
Dalai Lama=spiritual leader of Tibetan sect of Buddhism
Zen Buddism
Established itself as the leading clan of Japan by the A.D. 400s
Kamakura Shogunate
Sengoku Period
Oda Nobunaga
Toyotomi Hideyochi
best general
Closed Country Policy
1639- Sealed Japan’s borders to prevent the influence of European ideas and to prevent people from leaving
Treaty of Kanagawa (1854)
Japan agreed to open two ports which U.S. ships could take on supplies
Japan Overview
Multiple Choice Questions
World War II
Feudal Japan
Japan defeated the Russian navy: first Asian nation to defeat a navy from Europe
The Sino-Japanese War


vs. the Chinese
Natural resources
Trading rights on mainland Asia
Created conflict with Russia
Japanese victory
Russo Japanese War
1910 Annexation of Korea
Act as harsh rulers
Builds Korean nationalism
China’s northeast province rich in iron and coal which the Japanese army seized in 1931
Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto
Guam, Wake Island, Bataan Peninsula, Corregidor, Hong Kong, Singapore, Dutch East indies and Burma
Bataan Death March
General Douglas MacArthur
"island hopping"
Warring States Period
Full transcript