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The Scientific Revolution
Transcript of The Scientific Revolution
The Scientific Revolution!
What was so dangerous?
The Reformation had people rethinking their relationship with God.
The Scientific Revolution:
Had people rethinking our position in the universe, our science, and the Bible.
Four men drank the Kool- aid...
...and led all of humankind down the rabbit hole!
The Church in the Dark and Middle Ages took an “Earth Centered” view of the Universe; man was at the center of everything.
Early Christianity’s Main Points about the earth and the relationship to the sun and stars:
The Problems This View Created?
It was WRONG!
Trying to track the path of planets got VERY confusing.
It didn’t fit the perfect circles.
The first to say the Earth was not the center?
Giordano Bruno (1548 1600)
Suggested a HELIOCENTRIC system: The SUN was the center of the system, NOT the earth.
Questioned the relationship between science and faith.
Giordano Bruno was declared a heretic...
...and burned at the stake.
Polish mathematician and astronomer.
Picked up on what Arab and Indian astronomers had written about:
HELIOCENTRIC System- A Sun centered universe
Nicholas Copernicus ( 1473 – 1547)
Did NOT publish his ideas until he was on his deathbed!
Also thought if he dedicated his book to the Pope, it would help.
Copernicus' book: On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres.
There is no one center of all the celestial circles or spheres.
The center of the earth is not the center of the universe, but only of gravity and of the lunar sphere.
All the spheres revolve about the sun as their mid-point, and therefore the sun is the center of the universe.
It was three years after Copernicus died before people realized his ideas...
Denounced the theory as being against the absolute truth of the Bible.
In its full text it was prohibited reading for Catholics.
1633 Galileo was convicted of grave suspicion of heresy for "following the position of Copernicus, which is contrary to the true sense and authority of Holy Scripture,"
Along comes Tycho Brahe:
Danish nobleman who had a passion for astronomy.
To prove Copernicus WRONG, there needed to be detailed observations of the movement of the planets over years.
Kept an observatory in Hven, Denmark.
Entertained royalty and others and invited them to watch the night sky with him.
No telescopes yet!
Naked eye observations that were INCREDIBLY accurate
Tycho Brahe’s “unusual” death:
Rule of the time: If dining with a king, you couldn’t leave the table until the king was finished and ready to get up.
Tycho really “had to go.”
Either he burst his bladder or stretched it so bad an infection set in.
Tycho Brahe’s Death...
"Let me not seem to have lived in vain.”
Tycho Brahe's Death...
Tycho Brahe’s Records:
Incredibly detailed in tracking planetary and star movement.
Thought he was going to prove a GEOCENTRIC universe.
The Earth at the center.
Tycho Found Problems with the “fixity” of the universe!
But in 1578, Brahe witnessed a SUPERNOVA!
A birth of a new star.
The Tychonic Universe
the Sun annually circles a central Earth
While the five planets orbit the Sun.
In Tycho's model the Earth does not rotate daily!
Johannes Kepler to the rescue!
Had the math background that Tycho didn’t.
Wanted to read the Mind of God.
-Math and science could help him.
Believed in the Copernican Theory.
Kepler and the Copernican Theory
Wanted to believe that the orbits of the planets around the sun were perfect circles.
Continue the belief of the universe:
He couldn’t make it WORK!
The data of Tycho’s didn’t fit his perfect circle math!
Religion said that the universe was circular.
But the math said it wasn’t.
WHO SHOULD HE BELIEVE??
Follow the math.
ELLIPTICAL orbits made the math work with Tycho’s observations!
But they weren’t perfect!
They weren’t central!
They weren’t fixed!
Kepler’s NEW problem:
He thought he had “read the mind of God.”
How does he tell people and not end up dead?
Kepler’s mother had been accused of witchcraft.
He wasn’t sure he had royal or religious protection.
Kepler HAD to tell what he knew!
Wrote the first science fiction work:
Shows the feasibility of a heliocentric system.
Feasibility = possibility
Has a trip to the moon.
What it would be like looking out from another planet.
Excommunicated from the Lutheran Church.
Lost his wife and all but two children to smallpox.
Saved his mother from being burned as a witch.
Made a living teaching astronomy and astrology (Said astrology “evil-smelling dung!”)
Did some math writing, but kept a low profile.
An Earth Centered Universe?
Why would people think that the Earth is the center?
Why would the Church prefer to think that man was the center of the Universe?
A new way of thinking!
A shift in thinking to the assumption that mathematical laws governed nature and the universe; therefore, the physical world could be known, managed and shaped by people.
The one who drank the kool aid and REALLY took us all down the rabbit hole!
Italian mathematician, astronomer.
Invented the astronomical telescope (other telescopes were already invented).
LOVED to create controversy.
Galileo felt confident in creating controversy: He had protection!
Lorenzo “the Magnificent” de Medici was his patron.
Proved Aristotle wrong about gravity.
Turned his telescope to the heavens.
What did Galileo see?
The universe was NOT:
Unique- He found other moons circling planets.Therefore, we were not unique.
Perfect- The moon had a rough surface.
Fixed- Supernovas and sunspots!
Galileo did NOT keep his observations quiet!
Wrote The Starry Messenger to tell about what he saw.
Proposed the Heliocentric system.
Why did Galileo do this?
Thought with Lorenzo the Magnificent’s protection he could be safe and teach that the universe was different than how the Bible interpreted it.
To be safe: He named the moons of Saturn after Lorenzo’s daughters.
Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Calysto.
“Just look in the darn telescope!”
The Catholic Church felt they had to make a stand and an example:
Western Christian biblical references: Psalm 93:1, Psalm 96:10, and 1 Chronicles 16:30 include text stating that "the world is firmly established, it cannot be moved." In the same tradition, Psalm 104:5 says, "the LORD set the earth on its foundations; it can never be moved." Further, Ecclesiastes 1:5 states that "And the sun rises and sets and returns to its place, etc
Galileo’s Counter Argument:
“Just look in the DARN TELESCOPE!”
The Bible isn’t wrong, it is the interpretation that is wrong.
It is a HELIOCENTRIC universe out there!
Galileo’s Trial for HERESY
Galileo was required to abjure the the idea that the Sun is stationary was condemned as "formally heretical.”
He was ordered imprisoned; the sentence was later commuted to house arrest.
His offending books were banned; and in an action not announced at the trial, publication of any of his works was forbidden, including any he might write in the future.
He knew he had escaped the worst the Inquisition could have done to him.
Accepted the sentence and died after 9 years either in prison or house arrest.
It took until 1835 for the Catholic Church to admit the heliocentric universe.
1992 Pope John Paul II apologized for what the Church had done. "most audacious heroes of research ... not afraid of the stumbling blocks and the risks on the way.”
The Birth of the Scientific Method!
The Old Way: Aristotle’s Method
People used to make guesses, could not prove or disprove any thing, and had vague theories.
EXAMPLE: Aristotle claimed that human males have more teeth than females.
The Old Way
Galileo, Kepler, Tycho and Copernicus all battled with the old methods to try to explain what they were discovering.
A New Way: The Scientific Method
Created by Sir Francis Bacon (1564 1626)
The method was to be inductive and experimental, amassing data on important subjects, classifying them, and developing from them wider rules and hypotheses.
The Steps of the Scientific Method
Observe a condition or behavior.
Make a “guess” as to why that condition or behavior exists.
Experiment to see if you can make it happen again.
Analyze the results.
New “guess” needed or not?
Not everyone felt the scientific method was the best for science...
Created analytical geometry
Descartes was a philosopher. He relied on mathematics and logic. He believed that everything should be doubted until proved by reason.
He believed that everything should be doubted until proved by reason. The only thing he knew for certain was that he existed—because, as he wrote...
That wasn't it!
That wasn't it either!
From this starting point, he followed a train of strict reasoning to arrive at other basic truths.
Modern scientific methods are based on the ideas of Bacon and Descartes.
Scientists have shown that observation and experimentation, together with general laws that can be expressed mathematically, can lead people to a better understanding of the natural world.
also changed the way we view science
Through his experiments with pendulums...
He explained that gravity was responsible for the motions of heavenly bodies.