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The Industrial Revolution

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alicia muench

on 6 January 2014

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Transcript of The Industrial Revolution

Lasting Impacts
The Industrial Revolution
Factory Systems and Conditions:
Earliest Factory
Richard Arkwright created
the first factory in Cromford
after his invention of the
Spinning Frame in 1769.
Factory Conditions
No safety guards on machines
No work clothing
Long hours of labor: 12 hours or more per day
Due to the use of steam engines it was very hot
Machinery was not fenced off: exposed people to the moving parts
Factory Accidents
Nearly a thousand people were treated for wounds and mutilations caused by machinery in one hospital
In the textile industry, women's aprons often got caught in the shafts of drawing frames
Workers are abandoned when the accident occurs
Child Labor
Children's Wages and Hours
Started working at 6 years old
Worked up to 19 hours a day with a one hour break
Often worked around large, heavy and dangerous machines
Used to move between tightly packed machinery
Paid a fraction of an adult's wages
Used orphans for slave-like labor and didn't pay them under the pretense of giving them food, shelter, and clothing
Children who were eight years old were paid 3 pence a day
A man was paid 15 shillings a day
Treatment of Children
Children who weren't old enough to operate machinery were assistants to textile workers
They were often verbally abused and beaten by the people they assisted
Commonly Used Punishments
"Weighted"- Heavy weights were tied around their necks and they were forced to walk up and down the isles of the factory so other children could take an example
Hit with a strap
If they looked to tired to work, they were dipped in a tub of water head first
They could be sent to prison if they ran away from the factory
Children who were potential runaways were put in irons similar to ones used for felons
Factory Act of 1833
The Factory Act of 1833 was passed in order to improve the conditions for children working in factories
No workers under the age of 9
Employers must have age certificates for workers
Children of ages 9-13 could work no more than 9 hours per day
Children of aged 13-18 could work no more than 12 hours per day
2 hours of required schooling per day for children
Appointed 4 factory inspectorsto enforce the law
Tenement Conditions
5-7 stories
25 feet long 100 feet wide
little air
little light
inches between buildings
cheaply built
How tenements came to be...
many tried to escape famine in Ireland
revolution in Germany
moved to Lower East Side
large income of people
single-family houses became tenements
Tenement House Act of 1867
cholera epidemic
5,000 people died
riots began
construction regulations set into place
1 toilet per 20 people
After Tenements
tenements in Chicago were taken down
public housing was built
First Houses
rehabilitated pre-law tenements
National Historic Site
Children During the Industrial Revolution
Why they were perfect to work?
didn't complain
could fit between machines
school was too expensive
parents were willing
Why were parents willing?
couldn't afford school
working children gave families more income
thus, a high birth rate
Working Conditions
10-14 hour shifts
minimal breaks
many injuries and deaths
fumes and toxins
limited education
Women during the Industrial Revolution
worked in mills and mines
some were maids or governesses for rich children
society demanded children
rapid increase in birth rate
not uncommon for families to have 10 children
had to work after birth
Emergence of Middle Class
Emergence of Middle Class
food at general stores produced at factories
factory workers were the lower class
middle class had a sense of entrepreneurship
emerged because of factories created by upper class
people who's jobs required educational experience were middle class
focused on new technologies
Middle Class
mostly comprised of businessmen
fair income
managed factories
professional skills
"a combination of traits from the upper and lower class men with the incorporation of entrepreneurship."
~Samuel Lopez
Factory Act of 1802
This was the first factory act that improved the working conditions for people in England
The apprentices could work no more than 12 hours a day
Employers had to provide education for working children
Apprentices had to give religious schooling on Sundays
Lasting Impacts
Important laws that protect workers rights were created at this time and later improved upon
Children were given more protection in work places and laws were put in place that led to a minimum working age
Today, it is ensured that homes remain safe with new regulations
New technologies created by the middle class aided the world we live in to make it more simpler
Children and women are protected with new rights and do not have to abide to life threatening labor.
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