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AP Government Review
Transcript of AP Government Review
Unit One: Constitutional Foundations
Unit Two: People and Politics
Unit Three: The Policymakers
Unit Four: Policies
Study guide for AP Exam
AP US Government
1.Differentiate between the terms “government” and “politics.” (1.1 and 1.2)
2.Examine the policymaking system in the U.S. Which linkage institution(s) do you feel are most important? Why? What does the policymaking system reveal to you about the role of government in the U.S.? (1.3)
3.Many people oftentimes credit the United States as being a democratic nation, but to what extent is the United States a democracy according to the traditional democratic theory? Explain. (1.4)
4.Differentiate between the three contemporary theories of American democracy: pluralism, hyperpluralism, and elitism. (1.4)
5.Briefly summarize the 5 tenets of American political culture and democracy as outlined in your textbook. Then choose the one you feel is the most significant in terms of its impact on America’s political culture. Defend your answer. (1.4)
6.Visit the website www.tocqueville.org and answer the following questions:
a.Why is Alexis de Tocqueville an important figure in studying American Government?
b.Summarize his comments regarding democracy in America.
Chapter 1 Questions
7.Read the Declaration of Independence (can be found in the appendix of your book or online) and explain why it is considered both a political argument and a philosophical treatise. (2.1)
8.How did John Locke’s ideas of natural rights, consent of the governed, and limited government each restrict the power of the government. (2.1)
9.Create a Venn Diagram that outlines the strengths and weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation government. What event(s) ultimately led to the decision to meet in Annapolis to discuss the Articles’ shortcomings? (2.2)
10.How did factions influence the decisions made at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in 1787? (2.3)
11.List two major compromises that unfolded at the Constitutional Convention (2.4)
12.Differentiate between ex post facto laws, bills of attainder, and the writ of habeas corpus. What does the Constitution say about each of these? (2.4)
13.Describe each of the following key components of the Madisonian Model of government: separation of powers, checks and balances, and republic. (2.5)
14.Read Federalist Papers 10 and 51 in the appendix or online. What information from these readings would have convinced you that Constitutional ratification was necessary? What arguments do you find in these readings that don’t convince you of the necessity of Constitutional ratification? (2.6)
15.Having a grasp on the confusing process necessary to amend the Constitution is critical. Using the information in your textbook, as well as the graphic organizer on pg. 50, summarize (or create your own organizer) the two ways the Constitution can be formally amended. Then summarize (or create your own organizer) the ways the Constitution can be informally amended. (2.7)
Chapter 2 Questions
16.What is the difference between unitary, confederation, and federal systems of government? (3.1)
17.Create a chart that demonstrates the role or significance of each of the following in the federal system in the U.S.: supremacy clause, 10th Amendment, enumerated powers, implied powers, elastic clause, McCulloch v. Maryland, Gibbons v. Ogden, Full Faith and Credit Clause, Privileges and Immunities Clause, extradition. (3.2) (10 points)
18.Differentiate between dual and cooperative federalism. Then provide a hypothetical example (don’t copy one from your book) of each. (3.3)
19.Analyze how devolution has impacted federalism in the U.S. (3.3)
20.Create a graphic organizer that both describes and gives relevant examples of the two types of grants: categorical grants and block grants. (3.3)
21.How can a federally mandated program be both a positive and a negative for state and local governments? (3.3)
22.Create a brief timeline explaining how federalism has impacted the scope of the federal government since the creation of the Constitution. (3.4)
Chapter 3 Questions
Chapter 4 Questions
1.Analyze the extent to which the Bill of Rights protects an individual’s civil liberties. (4.1)
2.Describe the process by which the Bill of Rights was made applicable to the states through the incorporation doctrine. Be sure to include all of the following in your response: Barron v. Baltimore, Gitlow v. New York, 14th Amendment’s Due Process Clause. (4.1)
3.Summarize the differences between the establishment clause and the free exercise clause of the First Amendment. (4.2)
4.How did the Supreme Court’s ruling in Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971) help define the relationship between the government in parochial schools? (4.2)
5.(SIX POINTS) Examine the ways in which the Supreme Court has ruled in a manner that seems to favor religious groups/organizations, as well as the ways in which it has ruled in a manner that seems to restrict religious groups/organizations. Be sure to discuss all of the following in your response:
a.Use of public facilities by religious groups/organizations
b.Engel v. Vitale
c.Abington Township v. Schempp
d.Teach of Darwinism/Creationism
e.Ten Commandments postings
f.Displaying religious symbols (4.2)
6.“The First Amendment guarantees the free exercise of religion.” Explain the extent to which that statement is true. Provide at least 2 examples of restrictions on an individual’s freedom of religious expression. (4.2)
7.(EIGHT POINTS) Freedom of expression is an important component of the First Amendment, however, it is not an unlimited right. Explain how each of the of the following impacts an individual’s freedom of expression:
a.Prior restraint (Near v. Minnesota)
b.Supreme Court decision (Schenck v. United States)
c.Obscenity (Roth v. U.S. and Miller v. California)
d.Libel and slander (NY Times v. Sullivan)
e.Symbolic Speech (Texas v. Johnson)
f.Free Press and Fair Trials (Zurcher v. Stanford Daily)
g.Commercial Speech and the role of the Federal Trade Commission
h.Regulation of the public airwaves and the role of the Federal Communications Commission (4.3)
8.When is a group’s right to assemble not protected by the Constitution? Explain the role of NAACP v. Alabama in your description. (4.4)
9.(FOUR POINTS) Describe how each of the following defendant’s rights:
a.4th Amendment Protections probable cause, exclusionary rule (Mapp v. Ohio)
b.5th Amendment Protections self-incrimination (Miranda v. Arizona)
c.6th Amendment Protections right to counsel (Gideon v. Wainwright)
d.8th Amendment Protections cruel and unusual punishment (death penalty rulings) (4.6)
10.Analyze the extent to which individuals in the U.S. have the right to privacy by viewing the right through the lens of the following Supreme Court cases: Griswold v. Connecticut, Roe v. Wade, and Planned Parenthood v. Casey (4.7)
Chapter 5 Questions
11. Differentiate between the standards of review (aka the strict scrutiny test) of the “equal protection of the laws” clause of the 14th Amendment. (5.1)
12. (FOUR POINTS) Trace the African Americans’ struggle for equality in America through the lens of the following:
a.Scott v. Sandford (1857)
b.Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
c.Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
d.Civil Rights Act 1964 (5.2)
13.Assess the success level of the court’s ruling in Brown v. Board of Education since the 1954 ruling. (5.2)
14.Explain the process that African Americans endured on the road to universal suffrage. (5.2)
15. (FOUR POINTS)Create a graphic organizer that outlines the difficulties that each of the following minority groups endured/are enduring on their path toward equality in the U.S. (5.3)
b. Hispanic Americans
d.Arabs and Muslims
16. Create a timeline that highlights the key events of the women’s suffrage movement from 1848-present. (5.4)
17. Create a graphic organizer that outlines the difficulties that each of the following groups endured/are enduring on their path toward equality (5.5)
b.People with disabilities
c.Gays and Lesbians
18. The Supreme Court has been forced to “draw a lot of lines” in terms of what is acceptable when it comes to affirmative action programs. Summarize the court’s primary decisions regarding affirmative actions by describing when affirmative action programs are acceptable and when they are unconstitutional (5.6).
Chapter 1 & 2 Outline
LO 1.1 Describe the key functions of government and explain why they matter.
LO 1.2 Define the various aspects of politics.
single issue groups
LO 1.3 Assess how citizens can have an impact on public policy and how policies can impact people.
LO 1.4 List the key principles of democracy, theories regarding how it works in practice, and challenges it faces today
Traditional democratic theory (5 aspects)
Challenges to Democracy (4)
American Political Culture & Democracy
Liberty, Egalitarianism, Individualism, Populism
LO 1.5 Explain the debate in America over the proper scope of government.
Gross Domestic Product
LO 2.1: Describe the ideas behind the American Revolution and their role in shaping the Constitution.
Declaration of Independence
Natural Rights, Consent of the Governed, Limited Government,
LO 2.2: Analyze how the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation led to its failure.
Articles of Confederation - strengths, weaknesses
Federalist and AntiFederalist Papers
LO 2.3: Describe the delegates to the Constitutional Convention and the core ideas they shared.
LO 2.4: Categorize the issues at the Constitutional Convention and outline the resolutions reached on each type of issue.
Critical Issues at the Convention
NJ Plan, VA Plan, CN Compromise, 3/5 Compromise, Equal and Proportional Representation
Individual rights issues
LO 2.5: Analyze how the components of the Madisonian system addressed the dilemma of reconciling majority rule with the protection of minority interests.
Tyranny of the majority, Separating powers, Checks and Balances, Federal system, Constutional Republic
LO 2.6: Compare and contrast the Federalists and Anti-Federalists in terms of their background and their positions regarding government.
Federalists argumentsAntiFederalists arguments, Bill of Rights
LO 2.7: Explain how the Constitution can be formally amended and how it changes informally.
Formal Amendment Process (proposal and ratification)
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
Informal Amendment (4 ways)
LO 2.8: Assess whether the Constitution establishes a majoritarian democracy and how it limits the scope of government.
Chapter 3 Outline
LO 3.1: Define federalism and explain its consequences for American politics and policy.
Structure of Federalism
LO 3.2: Outline what the Constitution says about division of power between national and state governments and states' obligations to each other and trace the increasing importance of the national government.
Division of Power Supremacy Clause 10th Amendment Enumerated Powers
Elastic Clause Implied Powers McCulloch v Maryland Gibbons v, Ogden, Commerce Power Full Faith and Credit Clause
Extradition Privileges and Immunities Clause
LO 3.3: Characterize the shift from dual to cooperative federalism and the role of fiscal federalism in intergovernmental relations today.
Dual to Cooperative Federalism Devolution Fiscal Federalism
Categorical Grants Project Grants Formula Grants Block Grants
LO 3.4: Assess the impact of federalism on democratic government and the scope of government.
Chapter 4 Outline
LO 4.1: Trace the process by which the Bill of Rights has been applied to the states.
Bill of Rights
Barron v. Baltimore
Gitlow v. New York, Incorporation Doctrine
Due Process Clause; Equal Protection Clause; Citizenship Clause
LO 4.2: Distinguish the two types of religious rights protected by the First Amendment and determine the boundaries of those rights.
Free Exercise Clause
Lemon v. Kurtzman; Zelman v. Simmons-Harris; Engel v. Vitale; Abington v. Schempp
Evolution v. Creationism
Employment Division v. Smith,
Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993
LO 4.3: Differentiate the rights of free expression protected by the First Amendment and determine the boundaries of those rights.
Freedom of Expression
Near v. Minnesota
Schenck v. USA; Yates V. USA; Brandenburg v. Ohio
Obscenity: Roth v. USA; Miller v. California
Libel & Slander: NYT v. Sullivan
Symbolic speech:Texas v. Johnson
Free press & fair trials: Branzburg v. Hayes; Zurcher v. Stanford Daily
Public Airwaves: FCC; Miami Herald v. Tornillo; Red Lion v. FCC; USA v. Playboy
LO 4.4: Describe the rights to assemble and associate protected by the First Amendment and their limitations.
Freedom of Assembly
Time, place, and manner restricitons
Freedom to Associate
NAACP v. Alabama; Collins v. Smith
LO 4.5: Describe the right to bear arms protected by the Second Amendment and its limitations.
Right to Bear ArmsD.C. v. Heller; McDonald v. Chicago
LO 4.6: Characterize defendants’ rights and identify issues that arise in their implementation.
Crime, arrest, trial, verdict4th Amendment: unreasonable search and seizure, search warrant, Probable Cause; Mapp v. Ohio (exclusionary rule); USA PATRIOT ACT5th Amendment: self-incrimination; Miranda v. Arizona, immunity, entrapment6th Amendment: Gideon v. Wainwright, Powell v. Alabama, Argersinger v. HamlinTrials: habeus corpus. plea bargaining, speedy trial, public trial, jury of peersTerrorism: Hamdi v. Rumsfeld, Rasul v. BushBoumediene v. Bush 8th Amendment: cruel and unusual punishment; Furman v. Georgia; Woodson v. North Carolina, Gregg v. Georgia, McClesky v. Kemp, Wainwright v. Witt
LO 4.7: Outline the evolution of a right to privacy and its application to the issue of abortion.
Right to Privacy - punumbras
Griswold v Connecticut; Roe v. Wade, Webster v. Reproductive Health Services; Planned Parenthood v. Casey; Sternberg v. Carhart; Gonzales v. Carhart
LO 4.8: Assess how civil liberties affect democratic government and how they both limit and expand the scope of government.
Chapter 5 Outline
LO 5.1: Differentiate the Supreme Court’s three standards of review for classifying people under the equal protection clause.
Civil Rights: Racial discrimination, gender discrimination, discrimination based on age, disability, and sexual orientation
Constitution and Equality
14th Amendment: "equal protection of the laws"
Standards of Review: Reasonable, intermediate scrutiny, inherently suspect/strict scrutiny
LO 5.2: Trace the evolution of protections of the rights of African Americans and explain the application of nondiscrimination principles to issues of race.
Era of Slavery
Scott v. Sanford (Dred Scott case)
Reconstruction and Segregation
Jim Crow laws. Civil Rights cases (1883), Plessy v. Ferguson
Brown v. Board of Education
Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenberg County Schools
De jure v de facto segregation
Civil Rights Movement and Public Policy
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Jones v. Mayer; Open Housing Act of 1968
15th Amendment; poll taxes, 24th Amendment, Harper v. VA Board of Education; white primary, Smith v. Allwright; literacy tests, grandfather clauses; Guinn v USA
Voting Rights Act of 1965
Gerrymandering, Shaw v Reno
LO 5.3: Relate civil rights principles to progress made by other ethnic groups in the United States.
Native Americans:Indian Claims Act, AIM, NARF
Hispanic Americans: Hernandez v. Texas, MALDEF, Cesar Chavez, Plyler v. Doe
Asian Americans: Korematsu v. USA
Arab Americans & Muslims: USA PATRIOT ACT, indefinite detention and the 5th/6th Amendment
LO 5.4: Trace the evolution of women’s rights and explain how civil rights principles apply to gender issues.
Couverture, patriarchy, protectionism
Suffrage, 19th Amendment, "Doldrums"
Equal Rights Amendments (ERA)
Reed v. Reed, Craig v. Boren
Civil Rights Act of 1964, Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978, Title IX
Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA)
Sexual Harassment: Harris v. Forklift Systems
Women in the military, active combat duty, the draft
LO 5.5: Show how civil rights principles have been applied to seniors, people with disabilities, and gays and lesbians.
Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967, reasonableness standard of review
Reeves v. Sanderson
People with Disabilities
Rehabilitation Act of 1973, Education of all Handicapped Children Act of 1975, Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA)
Changing definition of 'disabled'
Gay and Lesbian Rights
Bowers v Hardwick, Boy Scouts case, repeal of Don't Ask, Don't Tell, Romer v. Evans, Lawrence v. Texas, marriage equality movement
LO 5.6: Trace the evolution of affirmative action policy and assess the arguments for and against it.
Executive Order 11246, equal opportunity v equal results, University of California v. Bakke, United Steelworkers of America, AFL-CIO v Weber, Adarand Constructors v. Pena, Gratz v. Bollinger, Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1
LO 5.7: Establish how civil rights policy advances democracy and increases the scope of government.
Ch 6: Public Opinion and Political Action
Ch 7: Mass Media and Political Agenda
Ch 8: Political Parties
Ch 9: Nominations and Campaigns
Ch 10: Elections and Voting Behavior
Ch 11: Interest Groups
Gather a few statistics from different regions of the country regarding the following question: do you find that in each region, college education tends to be correlated with more liberal beliefs? Do you find regional differences?
Define political socialization, and list and define the three most significant influences on the political socialization of adults.
Do you think American policymakers should follow public opinion, or should they lead public opinion? Are there types of issues or events that would cause you to reach different conclusions on the same question?
What do you believe causes inconsistencies on specific issues for both liberals and conservatives? Explain.
List and discuss several forms of political participation in the United States.
What role has direct citizen participation played in American politics and government?
Chapter 6 Questions
Ch 6 Outline
LO 6.1: Identify demographic trends and their likely impact on American politics.
The American People
immigrant society, melting pot?
Regional shift, Graying of America
LO 6.2: Outline how various forms of socialization shape political opinions.
Family, mass media, school, age, political parties
LO 6.3: Explain how polls are conducted and what can be learned from them about American public opinion.
Political polls, how polling has changed over time
sample, random sampling, sampling error, exit polls
Roll of Polls in democracy, in informing the electorate
LO 6.4: Assess the influence of political ideology on Americans’ political thinking and behavior.
Liberal ideology v. Conservative ideology
LO 6.5: Classify forms of political participation into two broad types.
Conventional vs Protest, civil disobedience
How race/class effects participation
LO 6.6: Analyze how public opinion about the scope of government guides political behavior.
Ch 7 Questions
The roles of the media have changed since the 18th century. Have the media abandoned their role as a watchdog over the government? Create a list of the ways that the media have developed both adversarial and cozy relationships with governmental leaders.
The airwaves are a public good. List the pros and cons concerning whether and how the government should regulate the airwaves.
Is the mass media biased? Develop a definition of bias and gather evidence regarding characteristics reporters and editors, chain ownership and advertising, and actual media content.
On a scale of 1-10 (10 being extremely influential), rate how influential the media is in today’s political arena. Be sure to explain your answer.
What recent events do you think may have been staged by politicians in the hopes of gaining media attention?
How might the profit motive of the mass media influence democracy in America? Is democracy likely to be strengthened or hindered by the business aspect of media coverage? Are the media likely to cover issues or subjects that might negatively impact sales or their corporate advertisers?
Ch 7 Outline
LO 7.1: Describe how American politicians choreograph their messages through the mass media.
High tech politics
LO 7.2: Outline the key developments in the history of mass media and American politics.
print media (definition, rise and decline)
impact of the internet
Private control of the media
LO 7.3: List the major criteria that determine which news stories receive the most media attention.
Finding the news: beats, trial balloons
Presenting the news: sound bites
Bias in the news?
LO 7.4: Analyze the impact the media has on what policy issues Americans think about.
minimal effect hypothosis
LO 7.5: Explain how policy entrepreneurs employ media strategies to influence the public agenda.
LO 7.6: Assess the impact of the mass media on the scope of government and democracy in America.
Chapter 8 Questions
What role do the two major political parties play in American government and politics?
Describe a typical member of the Democratic Party and of the Republican Party. Which of these members are more likely to vote for the other party? Why?
Party machines are often viewed as having a negative impact on politics. Do you think the current models of these “machines” are negative or positive? Why?
Why do Americans favor a divided party government? What are the advantages to this type of government? What are the disadvantages? Is a divided party government more effective than a government with one party in charge of both the executive and legislative branches?
Why did Jackson begin the nomination convention? Was this an improvement over the former system? Explain your answer.
Why have third parties generally not been successful in the United States?
With the party-in-government holding major influence over the lawmaking process, what is the role of the minority party? What should it be? What is the role of the “shadow cabinet” in parliamentary systems?
Chapter 8 Outline
LO 8.1: Identify the functions that political parties perform in
5 task of Party as a linkage institution
The Downs model: rational choice theory
LO 8.2: Determine the significance of party identification in America today.
Party in the electorate
party image, party identification
LO 8.3: Describe how political parties are organized in the United States.
Local party organization
Party machines, patronage
Primaries, caucuses, open and closed
National party organization
national committee, national chairperson
LO 8.4: Evaluate how well political parties generally do in carrying out their promises.
Party in government
LO 8.5: Differentiate the various party eras in American history.
Party eras, critical election, party realignment, party dealignment
1796-1824: First party system
1828-1856: Jackson and the Democrats vs the Whigs
1860-1928: The Two Republican Eras
1932-1964: New Deal Coalition
1968- Present Southern realignment and Divided party government
LO 8.6: Assess both the impact of third parties on American politics and their limitations.
Winner take all system
LO 8.7: Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of responsible party government.
Responsible Party Model
Blue dog Democrats
Ch 9 Questions
1. The process by which candidates are nominated for president is complicated and involves numerous steps. State how each of the following has impacted (or currently impacts) the nomination process (9-1)
a. Primaries (open v. closed)
c. The McGovern Fraser Commission of 1968
d. The National Convention
e. Delegates and Superdelegates
2. Campaign finance reforms have been an important part of the political process in America since the costs of elections skyrocketed in the 1970s. The rules and regulations behind the reforms are intricate and complicated, and some have tightened restrictions, while others have loosened them. Explain how each of the following has reformed campaign spending. (9-3)
a. Federal Election Commission
b. Matching funds
c. Buckley v. Valeo (1976)
d. McCain-Feingold Act
e. Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission (2010)
f. 527 Groups
g. 501(c) Groups (SuperPACS)
3. Have Political Action Committees enhanced American democracy or restricted it? Explain. (9-3)
4. Discuss the extent campaigns have on the impact of elections. (9-4)
Ch 9 Outline
LO 9.1: Evaluate the fairness of our current system of presidential primaries and caucuses.
Primary, caucus, open and closed
delegates, super delegates
national party convention
5 major problems with our current nomination system
National primary, regional primary solutions
LO 9.2: Explain the key objectives of any political campaign.
Internet and campaign fundraising
10 steps to organizing your campaign
LO 9.3: Outline how fund-raising for federal offices is regulated by campaign finance laws.
Federal Election Campaign Act of 1974
Federal Election Commission (FEC)
Presidential Election Campaign fund
Public financing, matching funds
Full disclosure of financing
Soft money v hard money
527 groups, 501(c) groups
LO 9.4: Determine why campaigns have an important yet limited impact on election outcomes.
LO 9.5: Assess the advantages and disadvantages of having a long presidential campaign.
Ch 10 Questions
5. How are referendums and initiatives used to get items on state ballots? (10-1)
6. The textbook discusses three significant elections in U.S. History—1800, 1896, and 2008. Using the evidence from these three elections, describe (using specific historical details) how elections have changed over time. (10-2)
7. How do each of the following impact a person’s decision whether or not to vote: political efficacy and civic duty? (10-3)
8. How did the Motor Voter Act of 1993 impact the voter registration process in America? (10-3)
9. How does each of the following factors impact a person’s likelihood to vote: (10-3)
10. Define mandate theory of elections and provide two historical examples of presidents acting upon this theory. (10-4)
11. The Electoral College has evolved greatly from its original intent (allowing only the elite to choose a president) to its current status. Describe key events that have contributed to its evolution. (10-5)
Ch 10 Outline
LO 10.1: Distinguish the types of elections in the United States.
Functions of elections
LO 10.2: Trace the evolution of the American electoral process from 1800 to the present.
Election of 1800
LO 10.3: Identify the factors that influence whether people vote or not.
registering to vote
Motor Voter Act
Effect of education, age, race, gender, marital status, government employment on voting
LO 10.4: Assess the impact of party identification, candidate evaluations, and policy opinions on voting behavior.
mandate theory of elections
LO 10.5: Evaluate the fairness of the Electoral College system for choosing the president.
How electors are chosen
How electors vote
How ties are broken
Positives and negatives of Electoral College
LO 10.6: Assess the extent to which elections make government officials pay attention to what voters want.
What do elections accomplish?
Ch 11 Questions
12. Describe the differences between the three theories on interest groups: pluralism, hyperpluralism, and elitism. (11-2)
13. The textbook discusses why the size of an interest group doesn’t necessarily lead to it being effective. Explain how each of the following contributes to that hypothesis.(11-3)
a. potential group v. actual group
b. collective good
c. free rider problem
d. single issue group
14. What is the difference between an interest group and a political party? (your brain)
15. The primary goal of an interest group is to shape public policy. They do this through many different avenues. Discuss how each avenue listed below is a means by which interest groups shape public policy. (11-4)
c. Political Action Committees
d. litigation (amicus curiae briefs)
e. Public perceptions and opinions
16. Create a graphic organizer that explains the differences between each of the primary types of interest groups, and provide a current example of an interest group that would fall into each of the categories. (11-5)
a. Economic Interests (labor, business)
b. Environmental Interests
c. Equality Interests
d. Consumer and other public interests
17. What impact have union shop and right-to-work laws had on labor unions in the last 100 years ? (11-5)
Ch 11 Outline
LO 11.1: Describe the role of interest groups in American politics.
LO 11.2: Compare and contrast the theories of pluralism, elitism, and hyperpluralism.
Pluralism theory applied to interest groups
Elitism theory applied to interest groups
Hyperpluralism theory applied to interest groups
LO 11.3: Analyze the factors that make some interest groups more successful than others in the political arena.
Ineffectiveness of large groups
LO 11.4: Assess the four basic strategies that interest groups use to try to shape policy.
Four benefits of lobbies
Interest groups and litigation
LO 11.5: Identify the various types of interest groups and their policy concerns.
Economic interest groups
Labor, union shop v right to work
Environmental interest groups
Equality interest groups
Consumer and other public interest groups
LO 11.6: Evaluate how well Madison’s ideas for controlling the influence of interest groups have worked in practice.
Ch 12 Congress
Ch 13 The Presidency
Ch 14 Congress, The President, and The Budget
Ch 15: The Federal Bureaucracy
Ch 16: The Federal Courts
Ch 12 Questions
1. Discuss two factors that explain why there aren’t more women and minorities in Congress. (12.1)
2. Describe the incumbency advantage. Are there limitations of the incumbency advantage? Why has it been declining in recent years? (12.2)
3. Discuss how each of the following contributes to the incumbent’s advantage (12.2)(5 points):
c. Pork barrel spending
d. Position Taking
e. Campaign Spending
4. Create a graphic organizer that outlines the leadership structure of both the House and Senate. Be sure to include the following in your organizer (Vice President, President Pro Tempore, Speaker of the House, majority leaders, minority leaders, and whips) (12.3).
5. Differentiate between the various congressional committees and then describe the process of legislative oversight. What role does seniority play in the selection of congressional committees (12.3)?
6. What is a congressional caucus and why are they becoming more prevalent (12.3)?
7. Describe the complex relationship that exists between the President and Congress when it comes to lawmaking. (12.4)
8. Discuss the ways lobbyists and interest groups can/do influence the lawmaking process. (12.4)
9. How do the customs and norms of Congress cause it to operate on both an institutional and personal level? (12.5)
Ch 12 Outline
LO 12.1: Characterize the backgrounds of members of Congress and assess their impact on the ability of members of Congress to represent average Americans.
Role of House of Representatives & Senate, makeup of each
LO 12.2: Identify the principal factors influencing the outcomes in congressional elections.
Advertising, Credit claiming (casework, pork barrel), Position Taking, Weak Opponents, Campaign Spending
LO 12.3: Compare and contrast the House and Senate, and describe the roles of congressional leaders, committees, caucuses, and staff.
House Rules Committee
Speaker of the House
President Pro Tempore
Committees and Subcommittees
Standing, Joint, Conference, Select committees
Seniority system, committee chairs
LO 12.4: Outline the path of bills to passage and explain the influences on congressional decision making.
Process of how a bill becomes a law (p. 353)
President as chief legislator vs facilitator
Party influence, polarized politics, constituency vs. member ideology
Influence of lobbyists and interest groups
LO 12.5: Assess Congress’s role as a representative body and the impact of representation on the scope of government
Ch 13 Questions
10. The road to the White House must go down one of three paths—election, succession, or impeachment. Describe each path (be sure to include the 22nd and 25th Amendments) and provide at least one example of a president that has gone down the various paths. (13.1)
11. Even though the Constitution has changed very little in regards to the powers of the chief executive, presidential power has drastically changed since 1789. Analyze the changes in power the U.S. presidency has incurred since 1789. (13.2)
12. Describe the most important roles each of the following groups or individuals play within the executive branch (13.3)(5 points):
a. The Vice President
b. The Cabinet
c. The Executive Office
d. The White House Staff
e. The First Lady
13. Differentiate between a veto, pocket veto, and a line-item veto. Why was the line-item veto declared unconstitutional (13.4)?
14. What does it mean to “ride the president’s coattails?” (13.4)
15. Discuss the correlation between congressional gains and losses in a presidential election year versus midterm election years (13.4).
16. Why is it critical for the President to have good legislative skills in spite of the fact that he’s not a member of the legislative branch? Identify one historical example that supports your argument. (13.4)
17. The President fulfills various roles while directing the United States’ national security policy. Summarize each role listed below, and provide a historical example of a president fulfilling (or maybe failing to fulfill) each role (13.5)
a. Chief Diplomat
b. Commander in Chief
c. War Powers Resolution (1973) and subsequent legislative veto argument
d. Crisis Manager
e. Working with Congress
18. “Public sentiment is everything. With public sentiment nothing can fail; without it nothing can succeed.” Explain whether you agree or disagree with this Abraham Lincoln quote. Then explain why you agree or disagree using historical examples to prove your point. (13.6)
Ch 13 Outline
LO 13.1: Characterize the expectations for and the backgrounds of presidents and identify paths to the White House and how presidents may be removed.
Expectations of the President
Demographics of US Presidents
Impeachment, 2 Presidents, Watergate Scandal
LO 13.2: Evaluate the president’s constitutional powers and the expansion of presidential power.
Powers of the President
Expansion of power
LO 13.3: Describe the roles of the vice president, cabinet, Executive Office of the President, White House staff, and First Lady.
Running the Government
Executive Office of the President (National Security Council, Council of Economic Advisors, Office of Management and Budget)
White House Staff
The First Lady
LO 13.4: Assess the impact of various sources of presidential influence on the president’s ability to win congressional support.
President as Chief Legislator
Signing bills, veto, pocket veto, line-item veto (Clinton v. City of New York)
President at Party Leader
Effect of public approval on President
LO 13.5: Analyze the president’s powers in making national security policy and the relationship between the president and Congress in this arena.
President as Chief Diplomat
US Foreign policy
President as Commander in Chief
War powers, War Powers Resolution/Act
President as Crisis Manager
Foreign policy vs domestic policy
LO 13.6: Identify the factors that affect the president’s ability to obtain public support.
Mobilizing the public
LO 13.7: Characterize the president’s relations with the press and news coverage of the presidency.
Negatives of media coverage
Advantages of media coverage
LO 13.8: Assess the role of presidential power in the American democracy and the president’s impact on the scope of government.
How has the scope of the Presidency changed over time? Why has it changed?
Ch 14 Vocabulary
4. income tax (16th Am.)
5. federal debt
6. tax expenditures
7. Social Security Act
10. House Ways and Means Committee
11. Senate Finance Committee
12. appropriations bill
Ch 14 Outline
LO 14.3: Outline the budgetary process and explain the role that politics plays.
Stakes and strategies
10 major players in the budget process
Presidents budget vs. Congress' budget
Reforms on budget process
Congressional Budget and Impoundment Act of 1974
Congressional Budget Office
Budget resolution, reconciliation, authorization bills, appropriations bills, continuing resolutions
LO 14.4: Assess the impact of democratic politics on budgetary growth and of the budget on scope of government.
LO 14.1: Describe the sources of funding for the federal government and assess the consequences of tax expenditures and borrowing.
Income tax, Progressive income tax, Corporate tax, 16th Amendment, Social insurance taxes
Borrowing, federal debt
Tax expenditures (exemptions, deductions)
LO 14.2: Analyze federal expenditures and the growth of the budget.
Relation between budget and size of government
Military industrial complex, national security state
Social service state
Social security, Medicare, Medicaid
Controllable vs Uncontrollable (mandatory) expenditures
Ch 15 Vocabulary
15.Pendleton Civil Service Act
18.independent regulatory commission
Ch 15 Outline
LO 15.1: Describe the federal bureaucrats and the ways in which they obtain their jobs.
Hierarchy, job/task specialization, standardized rules
4 Bureaucratic myths
Pendleton Civil Service Act
Office of Personnel Management
General Schedule rating
Senior Executive Service
Political appointees, Plum Book
LO 15.2: Differentiate the four types of agencies into which the federal bureaucracy is organized.
Independent Regulatory Commissions
Independent Executive Agencies
LO 15.3: Identify the factors that influence the effectiveness of bureaucratic implementation of public policy.
Policy implementation (3 steps)
Why implementation fails
Lack of Clarity
Lack of resources
LO 15.4: Describe how bureaucracies regulate, and assess deregulation and alternative approaches to regulation.
Command and control vs. incentive
LO 15.5: Assess means of controlling unelected bureaucrats in American democracy and the impact of the bureaucracy on the scope of government.
OMB change budget
hold hearings (legislative oversight)
Ch 16 Vocabulary
23. class action suits
24. amicus curiae briefs
25. original jurisdiction
26. appellate jurisdiction
27. district courts
28. court of appeals
29. senatorial courtesy
30. solicitor general
31. stare decisis
33. original intent
34. judicial review
35. judicial restraint
36. judicial activism
Ch 16 Outline
LO 16.1: Identify the basic elements of the American judicial system and the major participants in it.
Litigants - Plaintiff, defendant
Standing to sue
Class Action suits
LO 16.2: Outline the structure of the federal court system and the major responsibilities of each component.
Constitutional courts, Judiciary Act of 1789
Original jurisdiction, appellate jurisdiction
District courts, Courts of Appeal
LO 16.3: Explain the process by which judges and justices are nominated and confirmed.
Judge selection and confirmation
LO 16.4: Describe the backgrounds of judges and justices and assess the impact of background on their decisions.
Describe the makup of the Supreme Court, currently and historically
LO 16.5: Outline the judicial process at the Supreme Court level and assess the major factors influencing decisions and their implementation.
Supreme Court accepting cases
Supreme Court making decisions
3 types of opinions
Original intent, judicial activists, judicial restraint
LO 16.6: Trace the Supreme Court’s use of judicial review in major policy battles in various eras of American history.
Major accomplishments of 5 courts, important court cases of each
Judicial Review, Marbury v Madison
LO 16.7: Assess the role of unelected courts and the scope of judicial power in American democracy.
Social Welfare Policymaking
Policymaking for Healthcare, the Environment, and Energy
National Security Policymaking
Unit Four Vocabulary
Consumer Price Index
Federal Reserve System
supply side economics
Social Security Act of 1935
national health insurance
Joint Chiefs of Staff
LO 17.1: Assess the role that government plays in our mixed economy.
Multinational corporations, Walmart example
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
Labor Unions, collective bargaining
Unemployment vs. Inflation
Consumer Price index
LO 17.2: Identify the two main policy tools that American government can employ to address economic problems.
Monetary policy, Federal Reserve Policy
Keynesian economic policy, demand-side economics
Difficulties controlling the economy
LO 17.3: Analyze the impact of the global economy on American economic policymaking.
World Trade Organization
LO 17.4: Describe the economic policy interests of business, labor unions, and consumers.
Impact of Consumer Lobby
Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
National Labor Relations Act
LO 17.5: Assess the impact of economic policies on the scope of government and democracy in America.
Link to Ch 18 Prezi: http://prezi.com/iprhp2p-p9gi/ch-18/?auth_key=dcc62aba4cada242e79147dec36cde41c872430d&kw=view-iprhp2p-p9gi&rc=ref-1273701
LO 18.1: Compare and contrast entitlement and means-tested social welfare programs.
Social welfare policy
income, wealth, income distribution, poverty line
Feminization of poverty
LO 18.2: Assess the extent of economic inequality in America and the role of government in lessening it.
Earned income tax credit (EITC)
LO 18.3: Trace the changes over time in major federal welfare programs.
Welfare as we knew it
Social Security Act of 1935
Ending Welfare as we knew it
Bill Clinton and welfare reform in 1996
Personal Responsibility and Work Reconciliation Act of 1996
Temporary Assistance for Needy Families
LO 18.4: Outline how America’s Social Security program works and the challenge of keeping it financially solvent in the coming years.
Social Security Trust Fund
Old Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance
LO 18.5: Distinguish American social welfare policy from that of other established democracies.
LO 18.6: Assess the impact of social welfare policies on democracy and the scope of government in America.
LINK TO PREZI:
LO 19.1: Outline the problems of health care in America and the role of government in health care.
Cost of Healthcare
Who is responsible for paying for healthcare?
Access to healthcare
Health Maintenance Organizations
Role of Government in Healthcare
National Health Insurance?? Clinton, Obama
LO 19.2: Analyze the conflicts between economic growth and environmental protection and identify the major national environmental protection policies.
Economic growth and the Environment
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
National Environmental Policy Act
Environmental Impact statement
Clean Air Act of 1970
Water Pollution Control Act of 1972
Endangered Species Act of 1973
Global warming/climate change
LO 19.3: Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each of the principal sources of energy in the United States.
Renewable energy sources
LO 19.4: Assess the role of democratic politics in making health care, environmental and energy policy and the effect of these policies on the scope of government.
LO 20.1: Identify the major instruments and actors in making national security policy.
Instruments of Foreign policy
Military, Economic, Diplomacy
International organizations, Regional Organizations, Multinational Corporations, Nongovernmental organizations, Terrorists, Individuals
The President, Diplomats, Secretary of Defense, Joint Chiefs of Staff, CIA, Congress
LO 20.2: Outline the evolution of and major issues in American foreign policy through the end of the Cold War.
Monroe Doctrine, Good Neighbor Policy, Roosevelt Corollary, Wilson and the League of Nations
The Cold War
Containment, Marshall Plan, arms race, brinksmanship, MAD, Vietnam War, Detente, Reagan rearmament
LO 20.3: Explain the major obstacles to success in the war on terrorism.
Spread of terrorism
Wars in Afghanistan and Iraq
LO 20.4: Identify the major elements of U.S. defense policy.
Personnel vs weapons
LO 20.5: Analyze the evolving challenges for U.S. national security policy.
New National Security Agenda?
Changing role of military
International economy - interdependence
Tariff, balance of trade
Energy and OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries)
LO 20.6: Assess the role of democratic politics in making national security policy and the role of national security policy in expanding government.
12.Ex parte Milligan
13.Mapp v. Ohio
14.TLO v. New Jersey15.Tinker v. Des Moines
16.Buckley v. Valeo
17.Texas v. Johnson
18.W. Virginia B. of Ed. v. Barnette
19.Furman v. Georgia
20.Miranda V. Arizona
21.Univ. of California v. Bakke
22.Brown v. Board of Education
23.MO ex rel Gaines
24.Plessy v. Ferguson
25.Gregory v. Chicago
26.NAACP v. Alabama
27.Escobedo v. Illinois
28.Gideon v. Wainwright
1.Near v. Minnesota
2.NYT v. Sullivan
3.Gitlow v. New York
4.Yates v. United States
5.Engle v. Vitale
6.Abington v. Schempp
7.Lemon v. Kurtzman
8.McCreary v. ACLU of Kentucky
9.Hazelwood v. Kuhlmeier
10.NYT v. USA
11.Schenck v. USA
29.Miller v. California
30.Planned Parenthood v. Casey
31.Griswold v. Conn.
32.Roe v. Wade
33. Marbury v. Madison
34. McCulloch v. Maryland
35. Gibbons v. Ogden
36. Bush v Gore
37. Barron v. Baltimore
38. Gitlow v. New York
43. Employment Division v. Smith
44. Brandenburg v. Ohio
45. Roth v. United States
46. Branzburg v. Hayes
47. Miami Herald Publishing company v. Tornillo
48. US v. Playboy Group
49. Collins v. Smith
50. DC v. Heller
51. Herring v. US
52. Hamdi v. Rumsfeld
53. Rasul v. Bush
54. Hamdan v. Rumsfeld
55. Boumediene v. Bush
56. Gregg v. Georgia
57. McCleskey v. Kemp
39. McDonald v Chicago
40. Powell v. Alabama
41. Arsenger v. Hamlin
42. Zelman v. Simmons-Harris
58. Sternberg v. Carhart
59. Gozalez v. Carhart
60. Red Lion Broadcasting Company v. FCC
61. Scott v. Sanford
62.Civil Rights Cases (1883)
63. Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenberg County Schools
61. Guinn v. United States
62. Smith v. Allwright
63. Harper v. Virginia State Board of Elections
64. Shaw v. Reno
65. Hernandez v. Texas
66. Plyler v. Doe
67. Korematsu v. USA
68. Reed v. Reed
69. Craig v. Boren
70. Harris v. forklift Systems
71. Bowers v. Hardwick
71. Romers v. Evans
72. Lawrence v. Texas
73. Adarand Constructors v. Pena
74. Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1
75. Citizens United v. FEC
76. USA v. Nixon
77. Schecter Poultry Corporation v. USA
78. Webster v. Reproductive Health Services