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Copy of CHAPTER 7 Training

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Jeanna Piña-Bayaca

on 28 March 2015

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Transcript of Copy of CHAPTER 7 Training

CHAPTER 7

A planned effort to facilitate the learning of job-related knowledge, skills, and behavior by employees.
Training can contribute to companies’ business strategy because:
- Training improves employee performance
- Training can also offer a competitive advantage for the company

High-leverage training
training practice that links training to strategic business goals, has top management support, relies on an instructional design model, and is benchmarked to programs in other organizations.
Continuous learning
a learning system that requires employees to understand the entire work process and expects them to acquire new skills, apply them on the job, and share what they have learned with other employees.
The Strategic Training and Development Process
Designing Effective Training Activities
Training design process
a systematic approach for developing training programs.
Six Steps in Designing an Effective Training Activity
Needs assessment
The process used to determine if training is necessary.
Organizational Analysis
A process for determining the business appropriateness of training.
Person Analysis
Three factors that manager’s need to consider:
• Support of Managers and Peers
• Company Strategy
• Training Resources
Strategic training and development initiatives
learning-related actions that a company takes to achieve its business strategy.
A process for determining whether employees need training, who needs training, and whether employees are ready for training.
Person Characteristics
an employee’s knowledge, skills, abilities, and attitudes.
Input
instructions that tell employees what, how, and when to perform.
Output
a job’s performance standards.
Consequences
the incentives that employees receive for performing well.
Feedback
information that employees receive while they are performing concerning how well they are meeting objectives.
Task Analysis
The process of identifying the tasks, knowledge, skills, and behaviors that need to be emphasized in training.
Job
is a specific position requiring the completion of specific tasks.
Task
is a statement of an employee’s work activity in a specific job.
Ens
u
r
ing Employees’ Readiness for Training
Self-Efficacy
the employees’ belief that they can successfully learn the content of a training program.
Work Environment Characteristics
Situational constraints
include lack of proper tools and equipment, materials and supplies, budgetary support, and time.
Social support
refers to managers’ and peers’ willingness to provide feedback and reinforcement.
Basic Skills
Cognitive ability
includes three dimensions: verbal comprehension, quantitative ability, and reasoning ability.
Readability
the difficulty level of written materials.
Creating a Learning Environment
Communities of Practice
groups of employees who work together, learn from each other, and develop a common understanding of how to get work accomplished.
Ensuring Transfer of Training
Transfer of training
the use of knowledge, skills, and behaviors learned in training on the job.
Climate for transfer
trainees’ perception of characteristics of the work environment that can either facilitate or inhibit use of trained skills or behavior.
Manager support
refers to the degree to which trainees’ managers emphasize the importance of attending training programs and stress the application of training content to the job.
Peer Support
Support network
trainees who meet to discuss their progress in using learned capabilities on the job.
Technological support
Electronic performance support systems (EPSS)
computer applications that can provide skills training, information access, and expert design.
Opportunity to use learned capability
Knowledge management
process of enhancing company performance by designing and using tools, systems, and cultures to improve creation, sharing and use of knowledge.
Selecting Training Methods
Presentation methods
training methods in which trainees are passive recipients of information.
Instructor-Led Classroom Instruction
Teleconferencing – synchronous exchange of audio, video, or text between individuals or groups at two or more locations.
Audiovisual Technique
Audiovisual instruction – includes overheads, slides, and video.
Mobile Technologies

Mobile technology is useful not only for entertainment, but can also be used for employees who travel and need to be in touch with the office.
On-the-job training
Peers or managers training new or inexperienced employees who learn the job by observation, understanding, and imitation.
Business Games and Case Studies
Situation that trainees study and discuss (case studies) and business games in which trainees must gather information, analyze it, and make decisions are used primarily for management skill development.
Behavior Modeling
Research suggests that behavior modeling is one most effective technique for teaching interpersonal skills.
Interactive video
Combines the advantages of video and computer-based instruction.
E-learning
Online learning refers to instruction and delivery of training by computers through the Internet or company intranets.
Characteristics of E-Learning
Repurposing
refers to directly translating an instructor-led, face-to-face training program online.
Learning control
refers to the ability of trainees to actively learn through self-pacing, exercises, links to other materials, and conversations with trainees and experts.
Blended Learning
combines online learning, face-to-face instruction and other methods for distributing learning content an instruction.
Learning Management System
refers to a technology platform that automates the administration, development, and delivery of a company’s training program.
Group- or Team- Building Methods
are training techniques that help trainees share ideas and experiences, build group identity, understand the dynamics of interpersonal relationships, and get to know their own strengths and weaknesses and those of their co- workers.
Adventure Learning
is learning focused on the development of teamwork and leadership skills by using structured outdoor activities.
Team training
coordinates the performance of individuals who work together to achieve a common goal.
include:

Cross-Training.
Team members understand and practice each other’s skills so that members are prepared to step in and take another member’s place.

Coordination Training.
Trains the team in how to share information and decisions to maximize team performance.

Team leader
training refers to training the team manager or facilitator.
Action Learning
Here teams or work groups get an actual business problem, work on solving it and commit to an action plan, and are accountable for carrying out the plan.
Six sigma Training
is an action training program that provides employees with defect-reducing tools to cut costs and certifies employees as green belts, champions, or black belts.
Evaluati
n
g Training Programs
Training outcomes
is a way to evaluate the effectiveness of a training program based on cognitive, skill-based, affective, and results outcomes.
Outcomes Used in Evaluating Training Programs
1.
Cognitive Outcomes.
It measures the acquisition of knowledge.
2.
Skill-based Outcomes.
It measures the behavior and skills.
3.
Affective Outcomes.
It measures motivation.
4.
Results.
It measures the reaction to program, attitudes and the company payoff.
5.
Return on Investment.
It measures the economic value of training.

Reasons for Evaluating Training
1. To identify the program’s strengths and weaknesses.
2. To assess whether the content, organization and administration or the program contribute to learning and the use of training content of the job.
3. To identify which trainees benefited most or the least from the program.
4. To gather marketing data.
5. To determine the financial benefits and cost of the program.
6. To compare the cost and benefits of the training to non-training investments.
7. To compare the cost and benefits of different training programs to choose the best program.
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