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Energy Systems

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rebecca chen

on 21 November 2013

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Transcript of Energy Systems

Energy Systems
Aerobic System
(Cell Respiration)

Anaerobic System
Anaerobic = without oxygen
Uses chemicals and enzymes
Occurs in the muscle fibre
Energy for short period of time
Aerobic = with oxygen
Occurs in the mitochondria ("Powerhouse of the cell")
Energy for longer periods of time (3 minutes and over)
Glucose is broken down to produce energy in the form of ATP
Muscle fibre type: Type I (Slow-Twitch)
Anaerobic Alactic (ATP-PC System)
Anaerobic Lactic (Glycolysis)
Uses phosphocreatine and ATP
Energy available for 10-15 seconds of activity
Highest rate of ATP synthesis
No by-products/waste products
Doesn't use glucose as direct energy source
Muscle fibre type: Type II B (Fast-Twitch)
Provides energy for up up to 3 minutes in high-level performance
Involves 11 different reactions (10 in glycolysis, 1 from lactic acid fermentation)
Uses glucose & glycogen to make energy (ATP)
2 ATP formed from glycolysis
By-product of lactic acid
Muscle fibre type: Type II A (Fast-Twitch)
Includes 4 different steps:
Pyruvate Oxidation
Krebs Cycle
Electron Transport Chain (ETC)
Uses glucose, fats, protein, and glycogen to make ATP
More Details
By: Rebecca Chen
Normally stored in the muscle
Readily accessible
High-energy molecule
Phosphate can be broken off and transferred to ADP to make ATP
Chemical Formula of Process
PC + ADP --> ATP + Creatine
ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)
Synthesized in the mitochondria
Used to fuel cellular processes in the body, including muscle contraction
ATP captures chemical energy from the breakdown of food
At a Molecular Level
3 phosphates attached by high energy bonds to adenosine
Adenosine is made up of Ribose (sugar) and Adenine (nitrogenous base)
How Does ATP Release Energy?
When a phosphate is broken off of the ATP molecule to form ADP (adenosine diphosphate) plus a free phosphate
Where Does ATP Come From?
Food-usually carbohydrates
Composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
Sugars and starches are carbohydrates that are used by the body for energy
Glucose- one of the simplest forms of carbohydrates (monosaccharide)- is the usual form of carbohydrates found in the body, and is stored as glycogen in the skeletal muscle and liver
The ATP-PC System in Sports
Plays an important part in power events
50 & 100m dash
High jump
Anaerobic Lactic System In Sports
Used for medium level physical activities
400 & 800m track events
Shift in a hockey game
Replenishment of phosphocreatine requires ATP
Achieved as a result of aerobic respiration
2-5 minute recovery time
10 steps
Involves the splitting of glucose to form pyruvate (pyruvic acid)
Occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell
Glucose + 2NAD+ + 2ADP + 2P --> 2 Pyruvate + 2 H2O + 2NADH + 2ATP
Net Reaction
Detailed Steps of Glycolysis
1. Glucose is phosphorylated by ATP (P group transferred to glucose)
2-3. Glucose-> Glucose-6-phosphate
Fructose-6-phosphate is phosphorylated by ATP
Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate formed
4-5. 6C molecule split into 2 3C molecules-G3P & DHAP
DHAP is converted to G3P
6. 2NAD+ is reduced to form 2NADH and two molecules of G3P are oxidized to form BPG
7. Substrate level phosphorylation- 2ADP converted back into 2ATP. 2 molecules of 3PG are formed
8-9. Water is removed to form 2 molecules of PEP
10. Substrate level phosphorylation- 2 ADP converted into 2ATP. 2 molecules of Pyruvate are left
Chemical Representation of the Anaerobic Lactic System
Glucose (C6H12O6) + 2ADP + 2P --> 2 Lactate (C3H6O3) + 2ATP + 2H2O
Lactic Acid Fermentation
Pyruvic Acid (Pyruvate) is converted to Lactic Acid
Makes you feel exhausted/pain in the muscle
What Happens When There is a Buildup of Lactic Acid?
Slows the breakdown of glucose
Decreases the ability of muscle fibres to contract
Exercise recovery-light aerobic activity combined with rest intervals
Removal of lactic acid:
30-60 minutes of exercise recovery
1-2 hours of rest recovery
Oxygen is needed to allow lactate to be metabolized (Cori Cycle)
Amount of oxygen needed to eliminate lactate is called oxygen debt
Pyruvate from glycolysis reacts with NADH to reoxidize it to NAD+
Lactate is formed
NAD+ formed goes back into glycolysis to allow the cycle to continue
The Cell Respiration System in Sports
Used during endurance events
Marathon run/swim
Soccer/Rugby match
Chemical Equation of Cellular Respiration
Glucose + 6O2 +36 ADP + 36 P --> 6CO2 + 36 ATP + 6H2O
Pyruvate Oxidation
Occurs in the mitochondrial matrix
Converts Pyruvate into Acetyl-CoA to be used in the Krebs cycle
Pyruvate loses a carbon in the form of CO2 to form an acetyl group
Acetyl combines with Coenzyme A to form Acetyl-CoA
NAD+ is reduced to form NADH
Krebs Cycle
Occurs in the mitochondrial matrix
Involves 8 reactions
2 ATP produced
6 NADH & 2 FADH2 produced
Steps in Detail
1. Acetyl-CoA binds with Oxaloacetate to form Citrate
2-3. Isomerization of citrate to form isocitrate
4. Oxidation of isocitrate, 1 carbon is removed & released as CO2, NAD+ reduced to NADH, isocitrate forms a-ketoglutarate
5-6.Oxidation of a-ketoglutarate, 1 carbon removed & released as CO2, NAD+ reduced to NADH, Substrate level phosphorylation- Phosphate removed and CoenzymeA binds to form Succinyl-CoA. Phosphate transferred to Guanosine Triphosphate (GTP). Phosphate group from GTP transferred to ADP to make ATP
7-8. FAD reduced to FADH2. Water is added to the 4C molecule to form Malate. Malate is oxidized by NAD+ to form oxaloacetate & NADH.

Electron Transport Chain
Occurs in the inner mitochondrial membrane
High energy electrons carried by NADH and FADH2 are used to transform ADP and P to ATP
Majority of ATP produced from aerobic respiration occur from ETC
Produce 32 or 34 ATP
Oxidative phosphorylation
Electrons are passed through the ETC through different proteins
As electrons pass proteins, hydrogen ions are pumped into the intermembrane space
Hydrogen ions pumped back into mitochondrial matrix through ATP synthase
NADH can produce 3 ATP
FADH2 can produce 2 ATP
Hydrogen ions and electrons combine with oxygen to form water
Full transcript