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Transcript of Turkmenistan
Iran Caspian Sea Uzbekistan Afghanistan Kyrgistan Tajikistan China Pakistan India Turkey Syria Iraq Russia Georgia Armenia Azerbaijan Quatar U.A.E Oman Useful information about Tukmenistan ) THE NATIONAL ANTHEM OF TURKMENISTAN capital:Ashgabat Where's Ashgabat? recognized: 25 December, 1991 Brief History of Turkmenistan (maybe longer than brief) Then came Alexander the Great ; Where do you think it is? Ukraine bordered by: Uzbekistan, the Caspian Sea, Iran, and Afghanistan BUT!!!! Independence: 27 October, 1991 has evidence of agricultural communities as well as planned irrigation works from 6000 BC and 3500 BC. 1st states: Margiana and Parthia Margiana was a part of Bactria Parthia was a part of the Median state Ruled by the Achaemenids Empire during the 6th-4th centuries BC. at the time when the silk road was very famous around 4 B.C while he was going on a trip to Central Asia while Alexander the Great was there, a Parthian Empire was established which lasted until 224 AD In the 5th century, most of Turkmenistan was conquered by the Ephthalites. In 224 AD, the Persians of the Sassanid dynasty took over the territory Sadly (only for the Ephthalites), in the 6th century, they were conquered by the Tiu-chue nomads of the Turkic origin It has a green background with a claret stripe of five carpet patterns; a white crescent and five white stars (which symbolizes the five major regions of Turkmenistan) on the right side of the stripe. When was Islam introduced to Turkmenistan? Begining at the year of 716 when an Arab caliphate conquered Turkmenistan. In the 10th century, a part of Turkmenistan was controlled by the Samanid Empire In the 9th century, the Oghuz Turks began to come to live in Turkmenistan Religion: 89% of the population are Muslim-Sunni 9% of the population are Eastern Orthodox (including Russian and Armenian churches) small groups of Bahai's Baptists, Seventh Day Adventists, Lutherans, Roman Catholics, Jehovah's Witnesses, Jews, and few other Protestant denominations When an Arab caliphate conquered Turkmenistan in the year of 716 and started to introduce it. In the year of 1040 the Seljuk clan took control of Turkmenistan just until the 13th century In the 13th century, Turkmenistan was a part of the Khwarazm-Shah state The Mongols conquered the region in the years of 1219-1221 Turkmenistan was split between the Golden Horde and the Chagatai Khanate and the Hulaguid Khanate of Persia In the 1380s, the Timur empire took over Turkmenistan The Timur empire is also called the Tamerlane empire During the 16th century, Turkmenistan was ruled by 3 different empires: the Khiva Khanate, Bukhara, and Persia. Geography: Turkmenistan is a land-locked country bordered by: Iran, Afganistan (to the south), Uzbekistan (to the north-east), Kasakhstan (to the north-west), and the Caspian Sea (to the west). Geography There is the Garagum (Kara Kum) Desert that covers 350,000 square kilometers of Turkmenistan. Lowest point: Akjagaýa Depression (Sarygamysh Lake) (-81 m) Highest point: Aýrybaba (3,193 m)
The Kopet Dag mountain range is an undergoing techtonic transformation so, this mountain range causes a lot of earthquakes. Turkmenistan has a cold desert climate Turkmenistan has long summers (May to September) these long summers are hot and dry the winters are mild and dry when in the north it is cold and damp most of the precipitation falls between January and May all the rainfall it gets is 300 mm (11.8 in) the capital: Ashgabat gets 225 mm (8.9 in.) per year the Kopet Dag mountain Range gets about 80mm (3.15 in) each year the temperature ranges from high: 16.2 degrees Celsius (62.2 degrees Farenheit) the Amu Darya is a major river in Turkmenistan which is 2,540 kilometers long To the west of the Amu Darya River, there is the Sundukly Desert which is the southern most extreme of the Qizilqum Desert that crosses in to Uzbekistan. other major rivers: the Tejen River (1,124 kilometers), the Murgap River (852 kilometers), and the Atrek River (660 kilometers) Then the course of the Amu Darya River changed that caused the Kara Kum desert to get a lot more land During the 16th centry, Russia started to make commercial contacts with Turkmen. Then in the 18th century, almost all trade between Europe and Cental Asia passed through Turkmenistan Even the local tribes of Turkmenistan were used diplomatically by the Persians, Russians, and British people as a part of the Great Game of the 18th and 19th centuries. In the year of 1865, Russia began directly incorporating territory in Turkmenistan and that made Turkmenistan the last addition to the Russian Empire and after that, that territory was called the Transcaspian District Turkmenistan joined the uprising in the year of 1916 when the Russian Tsar tried to get Central Asians to work battalions. Tsar (tzar, Csar, Czar) is a name or title given to an Eastern European (Russia, etc) Slavic Monarch or supreme rulers battalion-a military unit that is made of 300-1,300 soldiers that is commanded by either a lieutenant colonel or just a colonel Turkmenistan was part of the uprising during the revolution and the civil war The Muslim and nationalist opposition resisted the Bolsheviks until 1924 when that area was made in to the Trans-Caspian Republic. In 1925, that territory was made in to the Soviet Socialist Republic During the time when the Soviet was reigning over those countries, Turkmenistan was the poorest and least assimilated of all those countries and republics of the Russian Empire. The longtime Communist Party boss-M. Gapurov was fired by Mikhail Gorbachev in 1985. who then put Sapamurat Niyazov as the new republic head who were also called 'basmachi' by the Russians The Bolsheviks were a group or a part of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split with the Menshevik group during the Second Congress Party in the year of 1903. Then on October 27, 1990, Niyazov got 98.3% of the popular vote in an uncontested election to the new president of Turkmenistan. Then finally Turkmenistan declared its independance on 27 October, 1991. After the independance, Niyazov won another uncontested presidential election in June 1994 winning 99.95% of the votes. Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic (1924-1991)
First Secretaries of the Turkmen Communist
PartyIvan Mezhlauk (19 November 1924 - 1926) (acting to 20 February 1925)
Shaymardan Ibragimov (June 1926 - 1927)
Nikolay Paskutsky (1927-1928)
Grigory Aronshtam (11 May 1928 - August 1930)
Yakov Popok (August 1930 - 15 April 1937)
Anna Mukhamedova (April - October 1937) (acting)
Yakov Chubin (October 1937 - November 1939)
Mikhail Fonin (November 1939 - March 1947)
Shadzha Batyrov (March 1947 - July 1951)
Sukhan Babayev (July 1951 - 14 December 1958)
Dzhuma Durdy Karayev (14 December 1958 - 4 May 1960)
Balysh Ovezov (13 June 1960 - 24 December 1969)
Muhammetnazar Gapurow (24 December 1969 - 21 December 1985)
Saparmurat Niyazov (21 December 1985 - 16 December 1991) Nokhur Nokhur Places of interest #1:
Nokhur they have a really extrodinary culture consisting of Indo-European cultures Nokhur is a home for a certain tribe that has managed to keep and preserve its unique traditions of handicrafts and architecture of its villages. Margush: Margush was a prosperous kingdom in the Mary region. Scientists looked at the things they found and analyzed that this kingdom dated far back to 5 thousand years ago! #2 Margush
People in Margush were very good at handicrafts and art and it also says that they built palaces. They even had a written language back then! They were also the center of ancient civilization with India, Mesopotamia, China, and Egypt Scientists proved that Margush dated back to almost 5 thousand years ago!! #3 Merv:
Merv is another one of Turkmenistan's ancient center and is also one of central Asia's most ancient city. The oldest part of this town dates back to almost the 1st century B.c!! Merv was conquered by lots of different colonies and empires, but its most prosperous times were in the 11~12th centuries when the Arabs were ruling Merv. But, sadly in the year of 1222, the Mongols invaded and destroyed almost everything in that town. So, after that happening, it wasn't reconized as an important center just until the 19th century when it declined really much that it moved in to the neighboring town: Mary. So nowadays, in Merv, you can see the remains of streets, mosques, temples, and other old buildings The Turkmen language is related to the Oghuz group, Azeri, Turkish, and Uzbek's language. What languages do the people speak?
72% of the population in Turkmenistan speak the Turkmen language; which is used in schools and is also the primary language of the government. HOW PEOPLE DRESS IN TURKMENISTAN:
It is a huge shame on Turkish people if they don't dress smartly in public; so men dress in suits with ties and very clean shoes and women in long colorful dress. But!!! The important thing is the traditional dress of the Turkmenistan people!! The women's dress really shows their culture, ethnic history, social attitudes, and ethical and aesthetic values of Turkmenistan. The women uses different types of cloths such as: girmizi donlyk, sosany, sara takhta to make their dresses. To make a dress, they use a loom about 30~40cm long (the size of the dress depends on the length of the loom) the keiti had gold strips running down the sides to emphasize the size of the dress. The dress had a low, round-cut neck at the end of the sleeves which had a lot of embroidery and decorations on it There was a certain rule for married girls: the sleeves had to reach the ankles Silver jewlery and embroidery is a part of the dress of all ages; even men use it!! The woman's most important day of her life is her wedding day.....so that would mean that there would be a very special costume for this day which is.... on a girl's wedding day, she wears a dress with gold strip and simple jewlery around her neck. Also, a long robe is worn over the girl's dress The robe is made out of a red keteni and also has simple embrodery on it. The Turkmen language was based on the Arabic script, but before World War II, it was changed into Latin-based and then Cyrillic-based. Just until the middle of the 20th century, a Turkmenistan man's basic clothes was just a cotton or woolen shirt that was in dark colors (black, brown, etc.). The shirt had a rounded neck-line with an opening on the right side and was worn over the pants and tied with a brightly colored belt. Nowadays, the clothing is a mixture of Western clothes and a part of the traditional costume. The full traditional costume can really only be seen on national holidays and special occasions (such as weddings). People of Turkmenistan National Holidays Jan 1 - New Years Day
Jan 12 - Memorial Day
Feb 19 - Flag Day
Mar 8 - International Woman's Day
Mar 21 & 22 - Spring Holiday
May 9 - Victory Day
May 18 - Revival and unity Day (Magtumguli Day)
Aug 31 - Oraza Baramy/ Oraza Ait (End of Ramadan)
Oct 6 - Earthquake Rememberance Day
Oct 27 - Independance Day
Oct 28 - Independance (Day) Holiday
Nov 7 - Kurban Byramy Day (Feast of Sacrifice)
Nov 8 & 9 - Kurban Byramy Holiday
Dec 12 - Neutrality Day Traditional Dishes: Kazanlama:
A dish that is really impossible to cook in modern city conditions; shepherds cook out in the country-side where there are lots of sand and saxaul. They cut a lamb carcass in big chunks (7 or 8 pieces) then they marinate it with salt, garlic, and paprika. After that, they leave it to soak and wait until the saxaul turns into coals.
After they wait, they remove the thin layer of ashes and put the marinated meat right onto the coals. After a while, they put a layer of cauldron which is buried in wet sand which is carefully rammed. Then they wait for about an hour and then, they remove the cauldron revealing juicy chunks of lamb meat. cauldron: a large kettle or boiler Dzhazhyly bukche This is a dish that is made of sheep's liver, lungs, kidneys, and heart carefully washed then they are cut in strips and is fried with tail fat and is salted and semi-cooked. Then eggplants, onions, radishes, tomatoes, Bulgarian pepper, potatoes are cut small pieces and then they are put in the cauldron. Lastly, comes the finely chopped pieces garlic and cayennes. While that fragrant mixture cools down, there is time to knead the dough. Then the stiff, fermented dough is rolled out in small 15 cm circles. On that cooled down circle, you put the vegetable-meat mixture is put and little poaches are made. The poaches that are ready are then put in the cauldron and then after if cooks, out comes a delicious thing! Turkmen Pilav This is a dish that is best cooked with mutton. The moderately fat mutton is cut in small pieces and is cooked with a small amount of oil. When the carefully fried slices of meat have a gold-brownish tint, chopped onions is put in the cauldron. Then thinly chopped carrots are put in. When the entire moisture evaporates, onions and carrots are ready. Then slightly too salty hot water poured inside and the mixture cooks for another 5 - 10 minutes. Then rice is added which should be enough to cover the meat. When the water is completely absorbed by the rice the upper layer of rice should be carefully overturned and the entire dish is cooked further under the cover on small fire.
The rice is ready-to-serve when the grains turn yellow. The cauldron is removed from the fire and left for another 10 minutes under the cover to cool. The host of the house puts the rice onto a big plate by means of a huge skimmer. On top of it he puts carrots and juicy meat. Traditionally pilav is eaten with hands. That is all (If some or all of you are thinking it is so long)!! Thank you for listening to my presentation about my country! Kazanlama Turkmen Pilav