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Egypt: the Old Kingdom
Transcript of Egypt: the Old Kingdom
Lexi Larcher Nobleman and Farmer Plowing with ox Nobleman Farmer Garden and pool Grinding wheat for bread Nobleman and Farmer Lead beer straw and bread Nobleman Farmer Woman's wig Pottery jug Nobleman Farmer Banquet scene Oil lamp The Dynasties of The Old Kingdom
Capital city of Memphis established by Menes
The first pyramids were constructed
The Step Pyramid of Saqqara built for Pharaoh Zoser by his architect Imhotep Expansionism and pyramid construction in Giza and Dahshur
Egypt became governed by organized state rules
Hyroglyphics emerge Small provincial principalities emerged to challenge Pharaonic power
The kings continued to commission pyramids for their mortuary cult.
Policies of instating local governors in the provinces eventually caused the downfall of this dynasty and of the Old Kingdom. 3rd Dynasty 4th Dynasty 5th Dynasty 6th Dynasty Relative decline in Pharaonic power and wealth
Construction of Solar temples and smaller Pyramids at Abusir
In contrast to cult and funerary temples, worship of the sun god was typically done in open air, not in the small dark rooms in which other gods were reverently housed 2650-2575 BCE 2575-2465 BCE 2465-2345 BCE 2323-2150 BCE Religion
Mythology is defined as a collection of interrelated stories of a given culture.
Polytheism - the worship of many deities
Ra was the almost universally-worshipped king of the gods and all-father of creation. Everyday life revolved around the Nile River:
It was used as a food and water source, transportation, and most importantly it provided rich soil for growing crops. The Nile: A Source of Wealth The Nile Delta provided rich soil good for farming and raising livestock Other Sources of Wealth Manufacturing
Domestic trade via bartering Hieroglyphics Egyptians believed it was important to preserve and record information about their religion and goverment Scribes were men who learned
to read and write hieroglyphs. Rosetta Stone Created in 196 BCE and now used to decipher hieroglyphics. End of the
Old Kingdom Came to decline due to bad government and bad harvests
Egypt entered a 140-year period of strife known as the First Intermediate Period Old Kingdom of Egypt
2649-2150 BCE Art of the
Old Kingdom Government Egypt was a centrally planned and governed bureaucratic state
The Pharaoh was Head of State and considered a living God
The land was divided into 42 Nomes. Each Nome had a Noble governor, who was appointed by the Pharaoh, and responsible to the Vizier Population: About 1 million
Prominent social groups: Pharaoh
officals and peasants
Ancient Egyptians had to contend with heavy taxes, to maintain the lavish lifestyles of the Pharaohs and nobility
1. Creation Myth
- The Egyptians created myths to try to explain their place in the cosmos
- The Pantheon consisted of More than 2000 gods. Most had only a local cult center
- Preservation of body was paramount, for without it the soul would be lost forever
- Egyptians believed that the human soul was composed of two parts the Ba and the Ka
- Tombs were often visited by the family with new offerings.
Pharaoh Djoser's Step Pyramid at Saqqara began as a traditional, flat-roofed mastaba. The steplike structure symbolizes “Jacobsladder” the heavenward ascension of the deceased according to Heliopolitan solar doctrines The Pyramids of Giza included the largest of Pramid of Khufu, Pyramid of Khafre and the Pyramid of MenKaure
The Pyramid of Khufu is believed to have been constructed over a 20-year period concluding around 2560 B.C.E. Egyptians very early evolved a calendar based on a year of 365 days
Calendar System Counsel of Nine "Kemet" = rich black soil on the
banks of the Nile Fruits, grains, vegetables Cattle, goats, pigs Two specific jobs: 1. To read and write
inscribed on temple
and tomb walls
2. Keep government
records and write
letters for the
To honor the gods, the Pharaohs, and the dead Military Egypt was a relatively peaceful country in the ancient world, apart from a brief period of military expansion during the New Kingdom
Hieroglyphics are pictures/symbols that represent various objects, actions, sounds, or ideas Relief sculpture Temple painting