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Electric Vehicles

How they work and their advantages and disadvantages.
by

Jessica Pryor

on 2 March 2012

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Transcript of Electric Vehicles

Electric Vehicles How do they work? Advantages Disadvantages Emerging Technology
http://www.ubergizmo.com/2011/11/green-vehicle-technology/ 3 Major components
Battery pack
Electric motor
Controller When pedal is pushed the controller delivers electrical current from the battery to the motor for acceleration
No energy is used when idle The Batteries Usually have between 12-24 batteries
More batteries = more power to accelerate
Lead acid
Like gas cars or flashlights
Cheap and very popular
97% recyclable
Nickel-cadmium
Like video cameras
Smaller, high performance
Pricey
Lithium ion
Least common because most expensive
Highest performance and smallest
Batteries must be replaced every 3-4 years and are located in trunk or under the car.
http://media.treehugger.com/assets/images/2011/10/nissan-leaf-electric-car-battery-photo1.jpg
http://www.odec.ca/projects/2007/like7k2/electric/img/e04.jpg
Electric Motors 3 main types
DC Brushless
Highest top speed, lowest acceleration
Runs on DC electric power
AC Induction
Highest acceleration and average top speed
Driven by alternating currents
Permanent Magnet
Middle ground
Point = Dispel the myth that EVs are all far less powerful than gasoline-powered cars. http://www.freeenergystore.com/TransWarP_11_Features.jpg
Charging Most EVs can be plugged into any electrical outlet
To fully charge need 6-8 hours
Electricity that runs the car is just like what lamps and other electrical appliances at home run on
Regenerative braking
Brakes use the forward motion of the electric motor's momentum to run a "generator" that recharges the batteries
Because the energy of the motor is being used to run the generator, the car comes to a stop http://www.meeb.com/assets/5b311_electric-car-charging-station-photo2353455462345.jpg
http://news.cnet.com/i/bto/20080721/Coulomb-GMSaturnVuePlugInHybrid3_540x459.jpg
Conclusion Recent Politics This is a topic of very heated debate currently as companies will try to win out in what appears to be an emerging market. Generally, it is estimated that electric vehicles convert 75% of the chemical energy stored in batteries; however, much ongoing research is aimed at increasing this further. New battery architectures and mediums are being explored with hopes of increasing battery life and recharge capabilities.



Current Research
A solution that may be used to achieve up to a 40% faster recharging time (MIT)
An air-filled battery that could last ten times longer than lithium-ion cells (University of St. Andrews)
New potential architectures that involve semi-solid flow cells which allow for higher battery capacity and faster charges. (MIT)

The batteries in an electric vehicle don't usually last for longer than 100 miles and recharging takes 6-8 hours, so road trips and long car rides can be difficult. Electric vehicles can be plugged into your average outlet, but must charge overnight. This is difficult for people who park in the street, are without a garage, and/or live in an apartment. Upfront prices are often higher, but can be made up for with state and federal incentives, and the money saved on gasoline. The electricity that powers the EV comes from power plants which most often burn coal. Increased need of electricity will result in more productive power plants, so some of the pollution emitted by gas-powered cars will just be transferred to the power plants. Higher efficiency by as much as 400 to 600 percent over an internal combustion engine
Improved sustainability
No polluting by-products
EVs use batteries, wind, or solar power
Better milage than any other car on the road in addition to being safe, compact, durable, and quiet to drive. Comparisons Ethanol vs. Electric Hydrogen vs. Electric Ethanol prices fluctuate, sometimes costing more, sometimes less than gasoline.
Car prices are closer to gas-powered, while electric vehicles are more expensive
Already in the market, ethanol has already replaced 5% of gasoline consumed in vehicles


http://www.wired.com/autopia/2010/08/tesla-subsidy-vanishing-amid-electric-vehicle-boom/ http://www.auto-power-girl.com/wallpapers/highresolution/reva_nxg_nxr_electric_vehicle/52298 Standarization of the future market
Currently, two standards for electric charging stations, plug types, and charging voltage and wattage exist: the Society for Automotive Engineers (SAE) and CHAdeMO
As CHAdeMO powers ahead installing units across the United States and Europe, SAE will begin its infrastructure development by the end of spring of 2012
Number of electric charging stations per state in the United States In 2006, the Bush Administration laid groundwork for the funding of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV)

In 2009, the Obama administration announced the specifics of a multi-billion dollar economic package which specifically laid out 2.4 billion dollars for PHEVs

1.5 billion dollars will be allocated in grants to US based manufacturers to produce high efficiency batteries and their components, 500 million dollars can be allocated to US producers to research and produce electric motors and their components, and 40 million dollars can be allocated to producers to analyze PHEVs and electric infrastructure concepts
Recent politics surrounding electric vehicles In 2009, The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act was passed, allowing for the solicitation of up to two billion dollars in federal funding for manufacturers of advanced batteries and like components and four-hundred million for transportation electrification projects

In 2009, The American Clean Energy and Reinvestment Act was passed distributing allowances for research and development of electric vehicles and efficient modes of transit
A report from the University of California described that the tiered system by which some people pay for power, especially in California, which has a higher cost of electricity as usage goes up would be very detrimental to the low cost of electricity for electric vehicles

In some instances, this can lead to electricity as a means to power cars to be less efficient that traditional gasoline

The lack of formalized infrastructure in much of the United States coupled with the strong political power of domestic automobile producers will prove to be a strong force to battle against
Impediments to implementation Recent Acts The main system of incentives by which consumers are enticed to buy electric or hybrid vehicles and producers are enticed to produce recharging stations is through tax credits

Ranging from a maximum of four thousand to seven thousand dollars depending on which type of vehicle the consumer is buying, the tax credit on such items will provide incentives for consumers to buy electric or hybrid vehicles

A tax credit of up to one-hundred thousand dollars is available for producers producing recharging stations for each location used in recharging property used in a trade or business
Current incentives http://ec.europa.eu/commission_2010-2014/tajani/hot-topics/green-cars/index_en.htm Hydrogen vehicles can go up to 300 miles and recharge in five minutes with top speeds of approximately 280 mph.
Final cost is considerably higher than electric vehicle
Hydrogen fuel filling stations are scarce, much more difficult to find than a place to charge a battery
The acceptance of electric vehicles into the mass market has thus far proven itself to be a difficult transition. Sales are considerably lower than projected, but this does not necessarily mean a bleak future. The public does not know much about EVs and must be educated concerning what an electric car is and how the higher initial cost can be rationalized.

Also, by overcoming issues that consumers face such as range anxiety and charging time with new technology, the electic vehicle could come to constitute a significant portion of the car market. http://www.newenglandpost.com/2011/09/20/happened-hydrogen-car-findings-mit-wheels-turning/
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