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A/P - The Endocrine System

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by

Alicia Abel

on 21 January 2014

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Transcript of A/P - The Endocrine System

The Endocrine System
Controls body activities by releasing hormones
Mediator molecules released in one part of the body that regulate cells in another part of the body
Responses of the endocrine system are often slower than the nervous system, but usually have a longer effect.
Endocrine glands are ductless and secrete hormones into fluid around secretory cells. Hormones diffuse into capillaries and are moved through the blood.
Exocrine glands secrete products into ducts that carry secretions into cavities, spaces inside organs, or surfaces outside the body
Hypothalamus and
Hypothalamus
Major link between nervous and endocrine systems
Pituitary gland
Small, pea shaped structure attached to hypothalamus
Has two lobes: anterior and posterior
Controls pituitary gland
Anterior pituitary
Stimulated by releasing hormones of hypothalamus
Suppressed by inhibiting hormones of hypothalamus
Hormones of Anterior Pituitary
Human growth hormone (hGH)
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
Prolactin (PRL)
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Hormones of Posterior Pituitary
Stimulates tissues to secrete insulinlike growth factors (IGFs), which stimulate body growth and regulate metabolism
Controls secretions and other actions of thyroid gland
Females - initiates development of oocytes (eggs) and induces ovaries to secrete estrogen
Males - stimulates testes to produce sperm
Females - triggers ovulation, stimulates secretion of estrogens and progesterone
Males - stimulates testes to produce testosterone
Promotes milk secretion by mammary glands
Stimulates secretion of glucocorticoids (cortisol) by adrenal cortex
Oxytocin (OT)
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Posterior pituitary
Does not make hormones, but does store and release two hormones
Stimulates contraction of smooth muscles of uterus during childbirth
Stimulates milk ejection ("letdown")
Decreases urine volume and perspiration
Increases blood pressure
Found inferior to larynx (voice box)
Hormones of Thyroid Gland
Thyroid hormones (T3 and T4)
Calcitonin
Increase metabolic rate, stimulate protein synthesis, accelerate body growth
Accelerate uptake of calcium and phosphates into bone
Parathyroid Glands
Found on posterior surface of thyroid gland
Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
Regulates calcium, magnesium, and phosphate ions in the blood
Promotes Vitamin D formation to increase absorption of dietary calcium and magnesium (important for bone development)
Found superior to each kidney
Adrenal cortex
Adrenal medulla
Outer area (peripheral)
Central area
Hormones of the adrenal cortex
Mineralcorticoids (aldosterone)
Glucocorticoids (cortisol or hydrocortizone)
Hormones of the adrenal medulla
Epinephrine and norepinephrine
Androgens (dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)
Increase sodium and water and decrease potassium in blood
Regulates metabolism of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates
Helps us cope with stress
Depresses immune response
Anti-inflammatory
Assist in growth of axillary and pubic hair
Source of estrogen after menopause in females
Enhance effects of the sympathetic nervous system ("fight or flight") during stress
Flattened organ located between kidneys
Also an exocrine gland involved in the digestive system
Specialized clusters of tissue called islets of Langerhans produce hormones
Hormones of the pancreas
Glucagon
Insulin
Raises blood glucose by converting glycogen in the liver into glucose
Lowers blood glucose by escorting glucose into cells
Gonads
organs that produce gametes (sperm and oocytes)
Paired oval structures found in the female abdominal cavity
Hormones of the ovaries
Estrogens and progesterone
Promote development of female secondary sex characteristics (ex: breast development)
Regulate reproductive cycle
Maintain pregnancy
Prepare mammary glands for lactation
Paired oval structures found in the scrotum of males
Hormones of the testicles
Testosterone
Regulates production of sperm
Responsible for male secondary sex characteristics (beard growth, deep voice)
Pituitary Dwarfism
Hyposecretion of hGH during growth years
Bone growth stops before average height is reached
Pituitary Giantism
Hypersecretion of hGH during growth years
Increase in length of long bones
Acromegaly
Hypersecretion of hGH during adulthood
Bones of hands, feet, cheeks, and jaws thicken (long bones do not lengthen)
Diabetes Insipidus
Inability to secrete ADH or defect in ADH receptors
Secretion of large volumes of urine
Can cause dehydration
Hypothyroidism
Hyperthyroidism (Graves disease)
Hyposecretion of thyroid hormones from birth
Severe mental retardation and stunted bone growth
Hypersecretion of thyroid hormones
Body produces antibodies mimic TSH
Enlarged thyroid and protruding eyes
Hyposecretion of thyroid hormones during adult years (myxedema)
Puffy face, slow heart rate, low body temperature, tendency to gain weight
Hypoparathyroidism
Too little parathyroid hormone
Not enough calcium ions in the blood
Spontaneous action potentials of neurons and muscle fibers
Twitches, spasms, and tetany of skeletal muscle
Hyperparathyroidism
Elevated parathyroid hormone
Calcium and phosphate ions leave bones and go into blood
Soft, easily fractured bones
Cushing's Syndrome
Hypersecretion of cortisol
Rounded "moon face", "buffalo hump" on back, pendulous abdomen
Poor wound healing, hyperglycemia, osteoporosis, weakness, hypertension, easier to get infection, mood swings, difficulty handling stress
Addison's Disease
Hyposecretion of glucocorticoids and aldosterone
Mental lethargy, anorexia, nausea, weight loss, hypoglycemia, muscular weakness, low blood pressure, bronzed appearance of skin
Diabetes mellitus
Inability to produce or use insulin
Blood glucose high
Excessive urine production, excessive thirst, excessive eating
Type I: immune system destroys pancreatic beta cells
Type II: often associated with obesity
Need insulin injections to control blood sugar
Often controlled by diet, exercise, and weight loss
Full transcript