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climate

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by

Mashaal Duranai

on 5 January 2015

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Transcript of climate

Weather vs Climate
Weather
= the temperature/state of the atmosphere at a particular place/time.
Koppen Climate Classification System
Continental
Warm Summer
Issues
Climate change due to:
Bibliography
Author(s) Unknown. "Climate Types - Primary School Geography Encyclopedia." Climate Types - Primary School Geography Encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Jan. 2015. <http://geography.parkfieldprimary.com/climate-types>. Displayed the flora, fauna, and environmental issues of each climate region.
Factors that Affect Climate
We use the acronym L.O.W.E.R.N. to determine an area's climate.
climate & Weather
By Mashaal Duranai
Climate
= the average weather conditions of a particular place over a year.
Difference between weather and climate:
weather has to do with the conditions of the atmosphere at one time climate is the behavior of the atmosphere over a long period of time
L
The Earth is divided into sections by imaginary lines called latitude and longitude
CEAN CURRENTS
Different parts of the world experience opposite climate conditions partially because of ocean currents
W
E
Elevation deals with the different levels of the Earth
The higher you go, the thinner the air gets, and thus, colder it gets
This is because as air gets thinner, it can't hold as much heat
R
Winds carry temperature and moisture up a mountain, but as it goes up, the air becomes too thin for it to hold water; thus, it rains on one side of the mountain
n
Water absorbs/releases heat slower than land
That means that in the summer, areas with great lakes/oceans cool down communities
And in the winter water heats it up a bit
ATITUDE
The farther away from the EQUATOR, the less heat there is because the Sun's rays are most intense there
o
Warm water from the Gulf of Mexico flows up and across the Atlantic Ocean to Europe while North America is cooled down by Arctic currents flowing South
IND
Wind can cause an area to be hot or cold
If wind is consistently blowing from a hot and moist area, the place it is blowing to will also become hot and most, and vise versa.
If hot and cold wind mix, it'll become REALLY WINDY!
B.C.
Saskatchewan
LEVATION
ELIEF
This means that one side of the mountain will have a wet climate, while the other side will have a dry one.
The dried out cloud then goes to the other side of the mountain
EARNESS TO WATER
Tropical
A.K.A rainforests
Warm temp; 20-33 (degrees Celsius)
Regular rainfall (annually more than 150cm)
Ex: Hawaii, Malaysia, Brazil
Dry
Mild
Mediterranean
Polar
Tundra
Climate change
Many of the climate issues we looked at were a cause of climate change and global warming, so what can we do to slow down this process?
Issues
Technologies
Countries send satellites up into space to observe the Earth. They can be hovering over one spot near the equator
(geostationary)
, or they can pass over the poles and observe the whole Earth
(polar orbiting).
Issues
Desertification due to:
Issues
Urban development causes the destruction of forestry to provide housing.
Flora
Wildflowers (especially with red leaves)
lichen (grows well without soil, and is a food source for animals like reindeer)
Mosses
RADARSAT
disaster management
agriculture,
cartography
hydrology
forestry
oceanography
ice studies
coastal monitoring
Discovered by Wladimir Koppen
The most common system used for climate classification
Starting point = vegetation (which depends on climate)
Studied temp. and precipitation data to find 5 climate groups:
TROPICAL
DRY
MILD
CONTINENTAL
POLAR
Wet
Monsoon
Monsoon = wind system that reverses its direction every 6 months
Large amounts of rainfall in the summer
Ex: India, Bangladesh, West Africa
Wet & Dry
Has 3 seasons:
Hot and wet
(when the ITCZ arrives)
Hot and dry
(when the ITCZ approaches
Cool and dry
(when the ITCZ is warm and moist in the opposite hemisphere)
Ex: Havana, Cuba; Africa's Serengeti Plain
Flora
Fauna
Orchids (important because they attract bugs)
Insects
Reptiles
Amphibians
Birds
Mammals
Bamboo (important because it sucks up lots of water, preventing soil erosion)
Epiphytes (Plants that can grow anywhere)
Deforestation due to:
Logging companies want timber
Mining companies want precious minerals
Farmers want more open land
Energy companies want to construct dams for hydro-electricity
This can cause:
Shortage of natural resources
Soil erosion
Destruction of animal habitats
Increase pollution levels
Therefore, it can change the climate
Flora
Cacti (great because thick stems absorb lots of water, spines prevent less moisture from escaping than leaves)
Arid
Semiarid
low precip. levels
Some of the hottest spots in the world
located between arid and tropical climates
occurs when moist warm air is blocked off by mountains
10-30cm annual rainfall
25-50cm annual rainfall
Fauna
Acacia trees (leaves point upright for protection from heat, resistance to fire)
Century plant (only blooms when it rains - once in its lifetime)
desert fox (takes moisture from prey's blood)
jerboa (easily loses heat)
elf owl (nests in cactus stem to keep cool)
termites (nests are tall and skinny)
geckos (scaly, have webbed feet)
Global warming; Earth is drying up
less rainfall (leads to dead trees/grasses
Increased population (forces people to farm on unsuitable land, causing it to become exhausted)
This can lead to:
Droughts
Famines
Marine west coast
Humid subtropical
Warm summers with little rain
Short, mild, rainy winter
40 degrees latitude (N & S), ex, Israel, California, Sourthern Australia
Summers are hot/humid
Winters can be extremely cold
Precipitation = 76 - 165cm annually
Usually found on the east coasts of continents, ex, Sydney, Australia; Shanghai, China, Georgia, US
has a cooler, longer winter than Mediterranean climates
Light rain falls 2 out of 3 days in winter, and the average temp. is 5 degrees Celsius
Mild summers (highest temp. = 22 degrees Celsius
Ex, Seattle; Wellington, New Zealand
Flora
Fauna
Evergreens
Deciduous trees
Fruit trees
Shrubs
Birds
Rabbits
Panthers, Lynx ( not in cities)
Goats, Sheep (Mediterranean climates)
Subarctic (boreal)
Cool Summer
Warm, wet summers
Cold, very dry winters
Similar to monsoon climates
Large amounts of thunderstorms
Ex, Southern Canada
Cool Summers
Cold, snowy, humid winters
Marquette, Mich. = 81cm annual precipitation
More northern than warm summer climates
Large amount of thunderstorms
Ex. Russia
Short summers (temp. = 30 °C)
Long, cold, very dry winters (temp. = -40 °C)
Large amount of thunderstorms
Ex, Siberia
Fauna
Flora
Mixed forests (deciduous and coniferous trees, ex, cedars, evergreen fir trees, white birch)
Bearberries (can last all-year round)
Robins
Beaver (can survive in extreme cold)
Black bear
Moose
Greenhouse gases
Burning of fossil fuels
Usage of too much energy
This can cause:
Heating of the Earth
Less snowfall
Shorter winters
Ice cap
Short summers (but there are still a lot of plants and animals)
Extremely cold (highest temp. = 10°C)
Located in the Arctic and Antarctic Circle
EXTREMELY COLD (Temp. almost never rise above 0°C, even in the summer)
Permanent ice reflects sunlight out of the atmosphere, making it colder than ever
Located in Antarctica, Greenland, Northern Canada
Low precipitation
Fauna
Polar bears
Reindeer (Feed on summer plants, then migrate south in the winter)
Penguins
Walruses
Issues
Extraction of minerals due to:
Money
Provision of jobs
Provision of power for local people
This can cause:
Destruction of forests
Pollution
Acid rain
Danger of oil spills/gas explosions
Most weather satellites reflect the Sun's light to make an image of the Earth. Disadvantage?
Developed by Canada
Uses synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system (uses waves to make images)
Can function at night
Can observe:
Walk or use the bus instead of driving
Use LEDs or fluorescent lightbulbs
Choose your food products wisely
Author(s) Unknown. "Climate." - National Geographic Education. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Jan. 2015. <http://education.nationalgeographic.com/education/encyclopedia/climate/?ar_a=1>. Presented basic information and fun facts for each of the climate zones.
Author(s) Unknown. "Flora and Fauna." Tropical Rainforest. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Jan. 2015. <http://tropicalrainforestmdtessmer.weebly.com/flora-and-fauna.html>. Listed the flora and fauna of the tropical climate zone.
Author(s) Unknown. "The Intertropical Convergence Zone : Image of the Day." The Intertropical Convergence Zone : Image of the Day. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Jan. 2015. <http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=703>. Explained the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone.
Author(s) Unknown. "Temperate Grasslands." Grasslands. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Jan. 2015. <http://www.defenders.org/grasslands/temperate-grasslands>. Described the flora, fauna, and issues of temperate grasslands.
Author(s) Unknown. "Flora & Fauna." Canadian Wildlife Federation:. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Jan. 2015. <http://cwf-fcf.org/en/discover-wildlife/flora-fauna/>. Important because it listed Canada's flora and fauna.
Author(s) Unknown. "RADARSAT-1." Canadian Space Agency Website. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Jan. 2015. <http://www.asc-csa.gc.ca/eng/satellites/radarsat1/>. Explained RADARSAT, its purpose, and how it functions.
Author(s) Unknown. "Top 10 Ways You Can Stop Climate Change." David Suzuki Foundation. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Jan. 2015. <http://www.davidsuzuki.org/what-you-can-do/top-10-ways-you-can-stop-climate-change/>. Listed how to stop producing more greenhouse gas emissions.
Author(s) Unknown. "Factors That Affect Climate." ESL Grade 9 Geography. N.p., 10 Nov. 2014. Web. 04 Jan. 2015. <https://eslgeography.wordpress.com/2014/11/10/factors-that-affect-climate/>. Explained LOWERN (the factors that effect climate).
Author(s) Unknown. "Weather vs Climate." YouTube. YouTube, n.d. Web. 04 Jan. 2015. <https://www.youtube.com /watch?v=VHgyOa70Q7Y>. Provided a weather vs climate video.
Full transcript