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Transcript of Planning Lecture
How and when?
Who needs this?
Should they have a say in its development?
Should I consider the majority?
What is the purpose of this creation?
Form follows function?
Can we be creative?
Are there rules to follow?
Why don't we use what already exists?
Is there a deadline?
What resources do I have?
Am I only planning or am I seeing the project through?
Will I be held accountable?
Anything more practical?
Does this make it more complicated?
More at stake?
More to consider?
How do you create a city?
Walter Burley Griffin's Canberra (1911)
What's the function of a city?
Is that all that counts?
Should is look good?
Are there rules on city designs?
Who will live there?
Should they have a say?
Will they like the city?
Do they need to?
What's wrong with other cities?
Would it not be cheaper to simply develop another one?
How long do I have?
Am I alone in this?
When does it need to be usable? beautiful? leading?
How do you create a City?
Lucio Costa & Oscar Niemeyer's
Edwin Lutyens' New Delhi (1912)
Recent Concept - first published in 1904
The preparation and construction of plans in accordance with which the growth and extension of a town is to be regulated, so as to make use of the natural advantages of the site, and to secure the most advantageous conditions of housing and traffic, the convenient situation of public buildings, open spaces, etc. (OED, 2012)
Sir Christopher Wren (London, 1660s)
Pierre L'Enfant (Washington, 1790s)
John Nash (Brighton, London, 1810s)
George-Eugene Haussmann (Paris, 1860s)
John Sulman (Sydney, 1890s)
Frederick Law Olmsted (Washington, 1900s)
Daniel Burnham (Chicago & Washington, 1900s)
Louis Sullivan (Chicago & San Fransisco, 1910s)
Ebenezer Howard (Letchworth, 1900s)
Walter Burley Griffin (Canberra, 1910s)
Edwin Lutyens (New Delhi, 1910s)
Eliel Saarinen (Helsinki & Budapest, 1910s)
Conditions for Growth are Present
Grid? Spider Web?
Surveyor or Architect?
So where do you start?
Grid system with diagonal radial avenues
All main axes lead to open areas on prominent sites
Open areas to showcase important buildings and monuments
Most important are for Congress and President
Court of Honour, World Columbian Exposition, 1893
Chicago Plan, 1909
"Make big plans... remembering that a noble, logical diagram once recorded will never die, but long after we are gone will be a living thing asserting itself with ever growing consistency."
(Burnham in Hines, 1979)
Order & Symmetry
See, Live, and Experience your surroundings
The 'White City' becomes the 'Beautiful City'
Sullivan & Sulman
Designed to rebuild Chicago following the Great Chicago Fire in 1871
Father of the modern sky-scraper
Followed Ralph Waldo Emerson's ideas on 'eternal beauty'
Nature is not fixed but fluid. […] Build therefore your own world. As fast as you conform your life to the pure idea in your mind, that will unfold its great proportions. […] So fast will disagreeable appearances, swine, spiders, snakes, pests, madhouses, prisons, enemies, vanish; they are temporary and shall be no more seen.
Form follows function but form should always be considered
Looked for innovation and invention
Fan of radially planned cities, or spider-web designs
Adverse to a grid design for large and important cities
The defects [of grids] are, however, many, and it is a thousand pities that a work of such great importance to the future millions of Australia should be performed with so little thought and care.
The beauty, or otherwise, of town or city must have an effect on its inhabitants. […] Now, the "spider's web" plan possesses not only the advantage of convenience, but also of variety, and we all know that "variety is charming
J. Madison Allen’s 'Plan of a Whole City'
(Allen, in Warren, 1873)
Walter Burley Griffin's Canberra
Howard's 'Garden City'
Accessible & clean roads
Extensive use of electricity
"Unity essential to the city requires for so complex a problem a simple organism"
Favoured using topography
Order was essential
"Taken altogether, the site may be considered as an irregular amphitheatre [...] with the blue distant mountain ranges, sun reflecting, forming the back scene of the theatrical whole."
Majesty, functionality and eternal beauty
"The importance of classifying the purposes of the city lies in the fact that only by proceeding from generals to particulars, from the more essential to the lesser essential, and from the ends desired to the means for obtaining them are natural relationships established."
Allen, J. Madison. ‘Plan of a Whole City’ published in Warren, Josiah, Practical Applications of the Elementary Principles of "True Civilization", to the Minute Details of Every Day Life. Being Part III, the Last of the "True Civilization" Series. Princeton, Mass.: Josiah Warren, 1873, pp.45-47.
Condit, Carl W. The Chicago School of Architecture: A History of Commercial and Public Building in the Chicago Area, 1875-1925, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964, pp.4-67.
Emerson, Ralph Waldo. Nature, Addresses and Lectures. London: G. Routledge, 1886, p.121.
Expo 2000. The Chicago World Exposition, 1893. The History of World Expositions. The Hanover World Exposition 2000 website, http://www.expo2000.de/expo2000/geschichte/detail.php?wa_id=7&lang=1&s_typ=3
Griffin, Walter Burley. The Federal Capital: Report Explanatory of the Preliminary Plan. Melbourne: Commonwealth of Australia, Department of Home Affairs, Government Printer, 1913.
Griffin, Walter Burley. What of "Town Planning". Unpublished article by WBG in late 1930s. National Library of Australia from the EM Nicholls Collection, Box III/1, File 9.
Headon, David. The Symbolic Role of the National Capital. From Colonial Argument to 21st Century Ideals. Canberra: National Capital Authority, Commonwealth of Australia, 2003, p.13.
Hines, Thomas S. Burnham of Chicago: Architect and Planner. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979, p.124.
Howard, Ebenezer. Diagram No 7, ‘Group of Slumless Smokeless Cities’ in To-Morrow, a Peaceful Path to Real Reform.
Official Record of the Proceedings and Debates of the Australasian Federation Conference, 1891. Sydney: G.S. Chapman, Government Printer, 1981, pp.219-356.
Reid, Paul. Canberra Following Griffin. A Design History of Australia’s National Capital. Canberra: National Archives of Australia, 2002, p.9.
Sulman, John. ‘The Laying Out of Towns.’ Paper presented to the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science held at Melbourne University in January 1890, reprinted in An Introduction to the Study of Town Planning in Australia. Sydney: Government Printer of New South Wales, 1921, Appendix A.
Waring, John Burley. ‘On the Laying Out of Cities’ published in Papers Read at the Royal Institute of British Architects. Session 1872-73. London: The Institute, 1873, pp.141-55.