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The "New Negro" Movement
Transcript of The "New Negro" Movement
"The New Negro" Movement: Background
Terror in the 1920s: (KKK, Lynching, & Race Riots)
Resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan:
rekindled due to time of uncertainty, insecurity, and rapid social changes
targeted blacks and violence included lynching and whipping
action of killing by hanging with or without a legal trial
Race Riots of 1919:
riots set off by competition between blacks and whites
housing, jobs, union control, schools, and parks
Spanned from the 1920s and early 1930s
African American writers, artists and musicians became well-respected for their contributions to the cultural U.S
Harlem, New York served as the symbolic capital of this cultural awakening
Gate way for white Americans to understand Negro culture.
Whites saw talent in African Americans
This movement developed the image of the "New Negro", an intellectual, hard working and humane American
Jazz flourished during the Harlem Renaissance as African Americans began to get a voice
~ introduced "Jungle-Style"
~ first to manipulate human voice and sing notes without words
~ invented Scat singing
~created a more modern jazz genre
What enabled/emboldened African-Americans to assert themselves in the 1920s? What continued to limit that assertion in society?
Harlem Renaissance: empowered African-Americans to contribute to American culture, allowing them to gain respect
Also gave them power and confidence to speak out for their rights
Limiting factors: lynchings, KKK, stereotypes, Jim Crow Laws
The Great Migration
Negro Baseball League
Lil Hardin Armstrong
The first viable black league formed in 1920 under leadership of Rube Foster (manager of the Chicago American Giants)
Principal Negro Leagues: the Negro National League, the Eastern Colored League, and the Negro American League
Until 1946 "organized baseball", or segregation of black baseball players existed.
- Changed image of Negroes from ignorant and worthless men to men with leadership skills and talents.
- "New Negro" spoke for his/her beliefs and would not succumb to Jim Crow segregation laws.
- Originated during the Harlem Renaissance.
- African American artists, poets, writers and musicians shaped American culture and gained respect from whites, earning the title of the "New Negro."
Zora Neale Hurston:
- African American painter who created series of 60 paintings called, "Migration of the Negro"
- Paintings explained the Migration of African Americans from the rural South to the urban North and the
- African American writer who wrote
Were Watching God
. She wrote folk stories, including a folklore play with Langston Hughes.
- Wanted to publicize and preserve the culture of
a confidence African American.
- Single largest migration of an ethnic group in American history.
- Relocation of 6 million African
Americans from rural South to urban North
- Southerners encouraged to adopt Northern culture.
- Great Migration brought about the Harlem Renaissance.
"It would go against all nature for all the Negroes to be either at the btoom, top or in between. We will go where the internal drive carries us like everybody else. It is up to the individual." ~ Zora Neale Hurston
"I tire so hearing people say
Let things take their course.
Tomorrow is another day.
I do not need my freedom when I'm dead."
One of the most well-known writers and thinkers of the Harlem Renaissance
The only man to ever survive a lynching.
How does labeling a decade influence our understanding of that era in history?
Quick impression for that time period
- "The New Negro" Movement: quickly explains how African-American's position in society shifted
- "Harlem Renaissance"
Can explain causes of main events in that time period
1920s jazz pianist; second wife of Louis Armstrong
Average Migrant Woman