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What Material Makes Ice Melt the Fastest?

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kevin nawrocki

on 13 January 2014

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Transcript of What Material Makes Ice Melt the Fastest?

The purpose of my experiment is to see which material makes ice melt the fastest. I am doing this experiment because in the winter, we always have ice around our house, so we always want the best material to melt it right away, right? I can also help other people to melt their ice the fastest so that they do not slip. My hypothesis is if I do this experiment using sand, pepper, sugar, and salt, then I think salt will make it melt the fastest.
What Material Makes Ice Melt the Fastest?
I'd like to thank my mom for helping me with this project because she helped me organize everything and she let me use her phone as a timer.
Review of Literature
What Material Makes Ice Melt the Fastest?
Kevin Nawrocki Science Class
Period 1, 2013
Mr. Subaitis
Title Page
What Material Makes Ice Melt the Fastest?
Kevin Nawrocki
Memorial Jr. High School
6th grade
As water cools to 39.2 degrees Fahrenheit, its molecules grow close together, making it heavier. Molecules in water nearing the freezing point pull away from each other or expand, making ice lighter and less dense. Freezing helps keeps food and once-living things fresh. When ice melts, it turns from a solid into a liquid. Water can exist in three different forms. They are ice, liquid water, and water vapor. When water becomes ice, it expands. This means that ice takes up more space than water. Because it takes up more space, it’s less dense than water. That’s why ice can float in water
Ice is a weird material because nearly all other liquids shrink when they turn from liquid form to solid form. Even in summer, ice may be present in high clouds. Ice clouds are composed of ice crystals. Ice is the main component in comets, which are much like dirty, loosely packed snowballs. Pure water freezes at 32 degrees Fahrenheit. Ice is slippery because even at temperatures slightly below 32 degrees Fahrenheit, it has a thin, liquid like surface. Freezing is a valuable process for the purification of water. Ice covers ten percent of the earth’s landmass. Water freezes from the outside in, so the air is pushed to the center, that’s why some ice cubes particularly have an opaque center. Hot water freezes faster than cold water.
Water doesn’t always freeze at 32 degrees Fahrenheit; it needs something for its molecules to latch on to. If there is nothing for the ice to hold on to, you can get the temperature of water down to -44 degrees Fahrenheit before it freezes in a process known as super cooling. To form glassy water, you need to get the water temperature down to -215 degrees Fahrenheit in a few milliseconds. You won’t find glassy water outside on Earth, but it’s the most common form of water in the universe, because it’s what comets are made from. You can also make dry ice out of carbon dioxide. Dry ice is frozen carbon dioxide; regular ice is just frozen water. Dry ice can sink in water because of its gravity. When you put dry ice into water, it sends out a smoke that is like a cold steam. Sea ice is important to regulating global temperature, because the white, bright ice reflects back 80% of the light that hits it and helps to keep the ocean cool.
Algae grow between the cracks in sea ice and even on the underside of the ice. The algae can help to feed tiny shrimp like krill, in the winter. An ice crystal consists of water molecules, each made up of one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms. Ice appears naturally in forms of snowflakes, hail, icicles, ice spikes and candles, glaciers, pack ice, frost, and polar ice caps. Ice is considered a mineral. Clathrate hydrates are a form of ice that contains gas molecules trapped within the ice. Pancake ice is ice that is formed in places with less calm conditions. Candle ice is rotten ice that forms in columns perpendicular to the surface of a lake. Ice disks are round formations of ice surrounded by water. Ice pellets are a form of precipitation that has small balls of ice. It is also called sleet. It bounces off the ground when falling from the sky.
They do not usually freeze unless mixed with freezing rain. Hail forms in strong thunderstorm clouds when super cooled water droplets freeze on contact with dust or dirt. Diamond dust also known as ice needles or ice crystals, forms at temperatures approaching −40 °F because air with slightly higher moisture from aloft mixing with colder, surface based air. Ice has many uses. It can cool your drink, used to reduce swelling; it can be used for building structures and ice sculptures. Ice can be used to start a fire by carving it into a lens which will focus sunlight onto something that can start a fire. A fire will eventually start. It can be used to make instruments like the percussionist Terje Isungset. It can also be used in air conditioning units. Ice can also be an obstacle for when boats try to drive on water and for harbors.
1. 4 Plates
2. Ice Cubes
3. Pepper
4. Salt
5. Sand
6. Sugar
7. Tablespoon
8. Timer
Methods of Procedures
1. I put one cube on each of the four plates.
2. I put one tablespoon of sand on the first ice cube, one tablespoon of pepper on the second ice cube, one tablespoon of sugar on the third ice cube, and one tablespoon of salt of the fourth ice cube.
3. I timed each cube until it melted.
4. I repeated the experiment a few times.
5. I recorded my information.
Trial Number Salt Sugar Pepper Sand
1 21:21:41 43:46:22 45:17:09 24:40:61
2 27:14:93 45:30:98 52:53:17 44:16:87
3 33:29:56 46:46:19 54:40:05 47:56:35

Kevin Nawrocki
17146 Walter St. Lansing,IL 60438
Memorial Jr. High School
6th Grade
Age 12
Heat Transfer
The purpose of my experiment is to see which material melts ice the fastest.
My procedure took 5 steps.
My results were that salt melts ice the fastest, sand is second, sugar is third, and pepper is fourth.
The salt melted ice the fastest. My hypothesis was correct. I learned that sand can also melt ice fast, but not faster than ice. Next time, I wouldn't change anything to my project by changing the variable. If I continued to do this experiment, I could also change the amount I give the ice so that it's more difficult for me and more challenging.
1. Clearinghouse, T. (2007, January 17). Health and Family. In The Facts about "Ice". Retrieved November 25, 2013, from http://health.ninemsn.com.au/family/familyhealth/689834/the-facts-about-ice
2. Oldfield, M., & Mitchinson, J. (2011, May 19). QI: Quite interesting facts about ice. In The Telegraph. Retrieved November 25, 2013, from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/men/the-filter/qi/8523006/QI-Quite-interesting-facts-about-ice.html
3. Noyce, P. (2012, August 22). Dry ice and water ice - ten cool facts. Retrieved November 25, 2013, from http://windowviewblog.blogspot.com/2012/08/dry-ice-and-water-ice-ten-cool-facts.html
4. Ice. (2013, December 2). In Wikipedia. Retrieved November 25, 2013, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ice
5. Devlin, P. J. (2012). Ice. In The World Book Encyclopedia (Vol. 10, pp. 4-5).
6. Oxlade, C. (2009). Experiments with Water (pp. 7-11).
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