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Early English Settlements

Roanoke, Jamestown, Plymouth
by

Lindsey Zimmerman

on 15 October 2014

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Transcript of Early English Settlements

First English Settlements
Roanoke
Jamestown
Plymouth
Sailing Facts
Passage across the Atlantic Ocean took around two months, depending on the weather.

The ships were powered by wind, which could blow them off course. A storm caused such a fate for the Mayflower. It was headed for Virginia, but landed in Massachusetts!

The ships were generally small, often less than 200 feet long, and they were made of wood.
Aboard the ship were its crew,
passengers, and all of the supplies
needed - both for the voyage and for
starting a new home.

- Foods:
vegetables and fruit
bags of flour
dried beans
butter and oil and salt
barrels of salted-down meat
casks of fresh water

- Other items:
clothing
dishes
bedding
some furniture
building supplies and tools
seeds to plant
farm animals
The ships were very crowded. Families were allowed to cook their food in metal boxes called braziers. But if the sea was rough, no fires were allowed, and food had to be eaten cold.

Ships carrying colonists sometimes had cabins or small rooms below deck for individual families. Cabins were cramped, with barely enough room for people and their belongings.
Some ships had cradle-like boxes for people to sleep in so that they would not fall out or bed when the ship rocked back and forth. These cradles were only about five feet long.

Water that was carried on board in barrels was for drinking only, so all washing was done with salt water.
When? 2 attempts to build a settlement: 1585 and 1587

Where? Roanoke Island, North Carolina

Who supplied money? 1585: Sir Walter Raleigh

Who supplied money? 1587: John White

Who came? 91 men, 17 women, 9 children


Problem: White returned to England for needed supplies Delayed for 3 years in England, returns to find settlement deserted

What happened? Roanoke disappeared
Only clue: "Croatoan" carved on gatepost
King James grants Virginia Company a charter

Who supplied money? privately owned by a group called the Virginia Company (joint-stock company)


Where? Land in Virginia (Chesapeake Bay) in May 1607
Jamestown Problems

Swamps = disease–and poor farm land
Harsh winters
No food = Searched for gold/silver instead of farming
No strong leadership (until John Smith) –
Fighting with the Native Americans
Jamestown Timeline
April 1607: 144 settlers set up Jamestown
Spring 1608: 38 of original 144 colonists left
Looking for gold/silver instead of planting
August 1609: 400 new settlers arrive
John Smith a positive leader, makes people work, farm and explore; agreement with Native Americans, returns to England for 2 months no leadership
Winter 1609-1610: “The Starving Time”
Spring 1610: 60 surviving colonists
How did they survive?
John Rolfe sells tobacco
(1614 in England)
1618: Private land ownership
(Pay own way = 100 acres land, Each child over 15/each servant brought here = 50 acres)
Get to keep crops = work harder
Families and slave labor
Type of government: House of Burgesses
***First example of representative democracy in America

Colonists don’t like taking orders from VA Co in London
10 towns send 2 burgesses (representatives) each to assembly
Assembly called House of Burgesses make local laws for colony

Families
1619 VA Co sends 90 women
Paid 120 lbs of tobacco to marry one of these women (valuable – small supply, large demand)
Africans
1619: 20 Africans sold to VA farmers by Dutch
Many free until 1640: William Tucker
Some indentured servants not slaves
1660s – slavery law in VA
What happened? Jamestown Become a Royal Colony (King has control)

VA Co put in a lot of $ and didn't get much $ back

Constantly plagued by Native American attacks

1624: King James cancels charter and makes Jamestown England’s first royal colony in America
Who supplied money? the people paid for themselves

Who came? Pilgrims - people who come for religious freedom (Puritans and Separatists)


Persecuted (treated harshly) in England


The Mayflower
102 passengers total
35 Pilgrims
67 “strangers” or common people hoping to find a new life in the Americas

Left September 16, 1620

Where? Plymouth, Massachusetts (supposed to land in Virginia!)

Lost at sea for months and winter is quickly approaching

When? December 21, 1620
Government: The Mayflower Compact
Said: rules to follow, loyal to England
***First type of direct democracy in America

The Pilgrim leaders realized that they needed a temporary government authority. Back home, such authority came from the king. Isolated as they were in America, it could only come from the people themselves. Aboard the Mayflower, by necessity, the Pilgrims and "Strangers" made a written agreement or compact among themselves


How did they survive?
Help from the Native Americans

Spring 1621: Native Americans help Pilgrims
Squanto and Samoset teach them how to grow maize, squash, pumpkins
Teach them where to fish and hunt

May not have survived without their help
March 1621: Pilgrims and Wampanoag sign treaty to live in peace
Who came?
100 men

Problems?
difficult winter drives them to return home
Problems?
Harsh winter
No food
Disease

After first winter, almost half have died of disease, malnutrition and cold
What happened?
They survived and became the Massachusetts colony.
Full transcript