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Ch. 8 Framing the Constitution: Ch. 8

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joel davis

on 14 November 2018

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Transcript of Ch. 8 Framing the Constitution: Ch. 8

Comparing the two

Which states want the NJ Plan?

Which states want the VA Plan?

8.3 Shays’ Rebellion

8.6 Resolution: The Great Compromise

8.5 Issue 1: How Should States Be Represented?

The Rule of Secrecy


55 delegates from 12 states; Rhode Island boycotted.

8.4 Opening the Constitutional Convention

Calling for a Convention

Population

The Compromise

The New Jersey Plan

Shared Beliefs and Clashing Views

8.2 Early Quarrels and Accomplishments

Little Jemmy


The Father of the Constitution

8.10 Resolution: The Electoral College

The Slave Trade Compromise

Look what happens to representation in the House after the 3/5ths Compromise

8.8 Resolution: The Three-Fifths Compromise

Political Parties and Elections

Choosing The Chief Executive

8.9 Issue: How Should The Executive Be Elected?

New Thinking On Slavery

8.7 Issue 2: Should Slaves Be Counted as People or Property?

Signing the Constitution

8.11 Ending the Convention



Jay

8.12 The Federalists

Sam Adams

James Monroe

Patrick Henry

The Anti-Federalists

Articles Of Confederation
Congress was afraid of creating a strong central government.
What’s a strong central government? Why?
The first form of government was the Articles of Confederation: a loose union of the states in which each state retained its independence.
It could: make war and peace, raise an army and navy, print money, set up postal system.
It could not: impose taxes
Congress agreed on how to develop western lands acquired in the Treaty of Paris.
Northwest Ordinance: (Northwest territory) NW territory divided government land to sell to settlers.
Money shortage led to farmers being unable to pay taxes and debts. Judges ordered them to sell land and livestock.
Why was this significant?
Importance of Shays' Rebellion: it shocked congress into calling for a convention.
What’s a convention?
Each state was invited to send delegates to Philadelphia to revise the Articles of Confederation.
What was wrong with the Articles of Confederation?
James Madison was the Father of the Constitution
because his influence on the convention was so great.
He addressed the convention more than 200 times and took over 600 pages of notes.

The most important rule of the convention was secrecy.
Why Secrecy?
So delegates could feel free to speak their minds without alarming the general public.
The best way to secure our natural rights was through a
republic
: a country governed by elected officials.
Biggest question: how strong should the national government be?
What does that mean?
Should it have a lot of power or not (or should states have more power)
The VA Plan
Strong national government consisting of
3 branches
: legislative, judicial, and executive.
Congress to be made up of
two houses
: the House of Representatives, and the Senate.
Number of representatives depended on the state’s population.
Which type of states would like this plan?
Large states liked the plan.
Government would have
3 branches
.
Legislative branch would have just
one house
.
Each state
would have an
equal vote
in congress.
Which type of states would like this plan?
Smaller states liked this plan.
What's similar?
Why Did Tempers Rise?
Large states
want representation based on
population
,
small states
want representation based on the
state
(equal representation; one state, one vote).
Can you think of a good compromise?
The compromise plan: uses a two house Congress. The first house,
the House of Representatives
, represented the people and was based on a
state’s population
. The second house, the
Senate
, represented the
states
and each state had two senators.
This plan saved the convention.

How do you think southern states wanted slaves to be counted (as people or property)? Why?
Delegates from the
South
argued that slaves should be counted as
people
in order to increase their (southern states’)
representation
in the House of Reps.
How do you think the northern states wanted slaves to be counted (people or property) Why?
Delegates from the
North
argued that slaves were
property
and should not be counted, but
taxed
like property.
The Revolutionary War caused many people to reexamine their views on slavery.
Many states in the North passed laws attempting to end slavery.
Why would the South object?
But, the South’s economy was still too dependent on slave labor to abolish it.
What do you think would be a good compromise?
Compromise: count each slave as three-fifths of a person (or 5 slaves as three men) when determining a states population, and taxes.
Northern delegates wanted to give Congress the power to control trade which worried the Southerners who thought Congress would end the slave trade.
What would be a good compromise here?
Compromise: Congress controlled trade, but promised not to tax exports to other countries (ie. rice, tobacco), and not to mess with the slave trade for 20 years.
Northerners also agreed to the “Fugitive Slave Clause”: return runaways to their owners.
One Executive (President) Or Three?
Many delegates preferred 3 from 3 different parts of the country.
Why would they want 3 executives?
They thought 1 executive would be too king-like.
They decided on a single executive and limited his terms to 4 years.
Some believed that Congress should appoint a president.
What’s wrong with that?
Some believed that the people should elect the president.
What’s wrong with that?
They decided that the president should be elected by a specially chosen group of “
electors
” from each state.
Electoral College is made up of people, who are elected by the people, who vote for the president.
Each state has as many electors as it has senators and representatives.
How did states chose electors?
Political parties did not exist until several years after the convention.
Electoral votes are a “winner takes all “ system.
If a candidate wins a state, he gets all of the electoral votes.
(He can win without a majority)
9 states had to ratify (approve) the Constitution before it could go into effect.
It would be ratified by state delegates elected by the people at a special convention.
38 of 55 delegates signed the Constitution.
Why would some delegates refuse to sign?
Some felt it gave too much power to the federal government, some felt it didn’t give any rights to people.
Federalists were supporters of the new Constitution.
Madison, Hamilton, and Jay wrote the Federalist Papers.
Tried to
ease people’s fears
about a strong federal government by emphasizing that there were 3 branches of government and that
powers were limited.
The Anti-Federalists were against the new Constitution.
What do you think their complaints against the Constitution were?
Complaints against the Constitution:
Taxes
President would rule like a king
Judicial branch would overpower state courts
Giving up state power to national government
Mass. farmers, led by Daniel Shays, stormed the national arsenal.
Hello,
I'm Congress
C
O
N
G
R
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S
S
G
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Hamilton,
Madison,
Based on population
Based on state
Representation
Congress
House of Representatives
Senate
NO SLAVES
8.1 Intro

F
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T
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T
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Guess what wasn't allowed...
The federal government was too weak.
A formal gathering of people for a political purpose.
Congress was too weak to stop them.
Or...
Ratification
Full transcript