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10th Grade, Chapter 2

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Laura Carter

on 2 September 2015

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Transcript of 10th Grade, Chapter 2

Chapter 2
Europeans Establish Colonies
I. Spain Organizes its American Empire

II. Spanish Explorers Push North

III. The Pueblos Revolt Against Spanish Rule
Chapter 2, Section 1:
Spain's Empire in the Americas
I. The French Establish a Fur Trade

II. Life in New France
Chapter 2, Section 2: New France
I. First American Colonies

II. Jamestown

III. Effects of Expansion in Virginia

IV. Other Southern Colonies
Chapter 2, Section 3:
The English Colonize
I. Puritans and the Church of England

II. Puritans Arrive in Massachusetts

III. Conflict with Native Americans

IV. Culture


Chapter 2, Section 4: New England
A. Life in New Spain
-Encomienda System - required natives to work as slaves on plantations and in mines

-Spanish king discouraged abuse of natives, passed laws to protect them from physical harm (ignored)

-Catholic missionaries were sent to
convert the natives; forced to surrender
their traditions and build new churches

-Presidos (Spanish forts) built to house soldiers to enforce Spanish rule

B. Social Rank in New Spain:
-1: Spaniards (peninsulares) who immigrated during 1500s
-mostly men (took native wives)

-2: Creoles - Spaniards born in New Spain

-2: Mestizos - children of mixed Spanish and Native ancestry
-largest group in New Spain by 1800s

-3: Mulattos: children of mixed Spanish and African ancestry

-4: Native Americans and Africans (full-blooded)
A. Hernando de Soto - explored southeastern region of North America
-pillaged and massacred native groups

B. Francisco Vasquez de Coronado - explored central grasslands looking for gold (found none)

C. Pedro Menendez de Aviles - founded St. Augustine in Florida (1st permanent colony in North America)
C. 1590s - Juan de Onate established colony of New Mexico
-very few Spaniards settled there (outnumbered by Pueblos 2,000 to 40,000)
-Friars forced Pueblos to give up their traditional beliefs and convert to Christianity
-punished those who refused
A. 1660s-1670s - major drought, disease, famine hit New Mexico
-population went from 40,000 to 17,000 between 1638 and 1680

B. Pueblos revolted with help from Apaches
-Spaniards retreated to the far south of New Mexico
-temporary victory - Spaniards retaliated and retook it by 1693
-taught each side to compromise
Chapter 2, Section 5:
The Middle Colonies
I. New Netherland
II. New Sweden
III. The English Conquest
IV. Pennsylvania
V. Diversity
A. Early Goal: find a waterway through North American that would lead to Asia

B. Established colonies at mouths of rivers in "Canada" - called New France
-fished for cod, hunted whales and seals, traded for furs (especially beaver)

C. Natives competed w/ one
another for trade with French
-wanted metal weapons
and other French goods
D. French-Indian Relations
-typically worked with one another (unlike the Spanish)
-Montagnais, Algonquin, and Huron
-French benefit: received furs to sell in Europe
-Native benefit: received aid from the French (especially guns) to help fight their enemies (the Iroquois)
-made enemies of the Iroquois, who turned to the Dutch for weapons
E. French also sent Jesuit missionaries
-had success with Huron
-Iroquois raided Huron villages, kept Jesuits from spreading

A. Slow Growth
-reasons: hard labor, harsh winters, Iroquois raids
-only a handful of settlements outside of Quebec, such as Detroit
-few women settlers

B. Marriages
-French men married Indian women (
coureurs de boi
) and had children (
metis
)
-made strong alliances with Great Lakes Indians - lived in peace by 1701 after Iroquois were defeated
C. Louisiana and New Orleans
-1682 - Robert de LaSalle searched for a Northwest Passage to the Pacific
-sailed down the Mississippi River and found the Gulf of Mexico
-named the territory Louisiana for King Louis XIV and founded New Orleans
A. Roanoke - 1st attempt at a colony
-received a charter from Queen Elizabeth I to form a joint-stock company
-goal: make profits by trading resources found in North America
-colony failed to thrive and had disappeared by the time reinforcements arrived
B. Jamestown
-2nd attempt at colonization by the Virginia Company
-1607 - Jamestown established; led by Captain John Smith
-24,000 natives lived in region, led by Powhatan
A. Problems with settlement:
1. swampy land, full of mosquitoes that spread disease
2. major spells of hunger due to poor crops
-"Starving Time"
- Only 20% of 10,000 colonists survived by 1622

B. Conflict with Native Americans
-1609 - war with Chief Powhatan
-Pocahontas - Powhatan's daughter, marries John Rolfe - helped temporarily until Powhatan died
-successor, Opechanacough, disliked the English
C. Tobacco
-learned how to cultivate it in 1616 and sold it to English merchants
-King James I called it "loathsome" and "dangerous to the lungs"
-brought much wealth to the Virginia Company and saved the colony; became principal supplier of tobacco to all of Europe
A. War with Agonquin Indians
-Peace made with Opechancanough in 1632
-English expanded up the Potomac River
-led to more war
-disease and fighting brought Indian population from 24,000 in 1607 to 2,000 in 1670


B. Bacon's Rebellion
-William Berkley, governor of Virginia, heavily taxed the colonists and gave money to his wealthy friends
-refused to take action when Indians began attacking English again in 1675
-Nathaniel Bacon led a revolt
-slaughtered Indians (peaceful and violent)
-drove out Berkley, burned the town
-revolt died when Bacon died
-showed colonists demanded fair treatment
A. Maryland - founded in 1632
-namesake - Mary, mother of Charles I (son of James I)
-governed by Lord Baltimore
-formed as a refuge colony for Catholics seeking to escape Protestant England

B. The Carolinas - founded 1670
-namesake - Charles II (son of Charles I)
-Governed by the Lords Proprietor until overthrown in 1729
-had King-appointed governor and elected assemblies
C. Georgia
-founded in 1732
-proprietary colony to protect South Carolina from the Spanish
-led by James Oglethorpe
-became a colony for English debtors to come work off their debt
-no drinking, no slaves until 1752 when it became a royal colony
A. Who were the Puritans?
-believers in the Anglican Church who wanted to "purify" it of corruption
-some wanted to completely separate from the AC - "Separatists"

B. What did they believe?
-God alone can determine salvation

C. How did the Anglican Church respond?
-King Charles I began persecuting Puritans in the 1620s - dismissed Puritan ministers, censored Puritan books
A. 1620 - 1st Pilgrims go to America
-100 settlers signed the Mayflower Compact - agreement to self-govern
-Settle at Plymouth Rock in Massachusetts

B. 1630 - Puritans found Massachusetts Bay Colony
-led by John Winthrop
-"capitol" city - Boston
-established a Republic with an elected governor and assembly
-used town meetings to elect representatives

C. Colonists spread north to New Hampshire, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Maine (Maine
was a part of Massachusetts)
D. Rhode Island -
-formed by Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson as a refuge from Puritan rule
-religious toleration, church was separate from state

E. Salem Witch Trials
-New England Puritans were very suspicious of non-Puritans; believed in magic and witches (evil)
-Salem, Massachusetts 1692 - authorities tried and executed 19 people for witchcraft (1 other died in prison)
-Was it all fabricated? What was to blame for their strange behavior? We likely won't ever know.
A. Reasons for conflict:
-saw Indians as lazy, wild savages

B. The Pequot War
-1630s - engaged in fur trade with Pequot Indians
-Desire of English to expand led to tension
-1636 - Puritans attacked several villages to avenge one of their men, who they accused the Pequots of killing
-Pequots raided a Puritan village in return
-Puritans raided a Pequot village and killed 600/700 villagers, including women and children
-Pequot group disappeared by 1638

C. King Philip's War (1675)
-King Philip = Metacom, leader of the Indians
-Indians rebelled against the Puritans and destroyed 12 towns
-victory was short-lived - began to starve, ran out of ammo, Metacom was killed
-Indians defeated after losing 3,000 people
-many remaining Indians fled to French Canada for refuge

A. Founded by the Dutch in 1625 to guard the Hudson River

B. General Info:
-no mission work to convert the Indians
-Dutch East India Company appointed the leadership (governor and assembly)
-tolerated different religious groups
-poor middle class families (few single men)
-smaller population than other American colonies (fewer reasons for the Dutch to leave the Netherlands)
A. Founded in 1638 by the Swedish in modern-day Delaware

B. General Info:
-dual economy - farming and fur-trading
-many colonists from Finland (introduced the log cabin)
-eventually taken over by the Dutch
A. New Amsterdam = New York
-taken by the English in 1664
-renamed for the Duke of York
-allowed the Chesapeake colonies to join the New England colonies (had been divided by New Amsterdam)
B. New Jersey
-established in 1664 by the Duke of York
-settled by Puritans and Scots in East and Quakers in West
A. Reasons for Establishment
-Land granted to William Penn by King Charles II to repay debt in 1680
-settled by Quakers, who were rejected by Puritans
-saw men and women as equals
-had no clergy
-pacifists who refused to bear arms
-religiously tolerant of other faiths
B. Pennsylvania Prospers
-Penn arrived in 1682 with 2,000 colonists
-capitol city: Philadelphia (city of brotherly love)
-reached 18,000 colonists by 1700 (majority were Quakers)
-treated Indians with respect and had few (if any) problems
A. More diverse than other regions
-English, Dutch, Swedes, Finns, French, Germans, Norwegians, and Scots
-Many different religions
-No single ethnic or religious domination in the region - challenged the idea that political stability depended on homogenous groups
D. Slavery in the Colonies
-Africans arrived via Middle Passage
-Northern:
-worked as farmhands, dockworkers, sailors, or servants
-very small minority in New England
-Southern:
-40% of population in some areas
-worked on plantations - grew tobacco, rice, indigo, or sugarcane
-poor, minimalist living conditions
-12 hrs/day, 6 days/week
-New Cultures:
-blended Christianity and African spiritualism
-blended African languages into one (ex. Gullah in South Carolina)

-Rebellions:
-1739 - Stono Rebellion - 100 slaves killed 20 whites before being executed
-sought refuge with Spanish in Florida
-subvert rebellion - broke tools, worked slowly, feigned illness
A. Economy
-based on shipping (lumber), fishing, whaling

B. Population
-few Africans
-mostly middle-class families who immigrated to NE

C. Community
-settled in towns with public schools and a local church
-more economic equality
-less religious toleration in NE due to strong Puritan presence
-typically governed locally by using town meetings to discuss issues and vote on resolutions

B. Culture
-more religiously tolerant
-Economy based on farming
-exported wheat through main cities of Philadelphia and New York
-Population
-few Africans
-home to many diverse groups of immigrants
Chapter 3, Sections 2 and 4
Relationship with England
I. Government in the Colonies

II. Economic Relationship

III. French and Indian War
A. Traditions of English Government
-forced to uphold Magna Carta, which limited king's taxation power and guaranteed due process
-Parliament - 2-house legislature that checked the king's power

B. King James II Asserts Royal Power
-tried to rule without Parliament
-combined NY and NJ into Dominion of New England
-replaced elected governors with Crown-appointed governors
C. The Glorious Revolution
-1689 -James II overthrown and replaced with William and Mary
-W&M forced to sign an English Bill of Rights
-included habeas corpus (cannot be detained indefinitely without trial)
-no standing army in times of peace
-What does this mean for the colonies?
-James II's governors were displaced in colonies
-sealed idea of salutary neglect - colonies left to rule themselves
A. Navigation Acts
-series of trade laws that said
English
ships could only trade with England
-colonial ships can trade with other empires
-Colonists could only import goods through an English port (so they would be forced to pay taxes to England on it)
-Initially hurt colonies but eventually improved trade and colonial economies

B. Triangle Trade
-America to England - raw materials
-England to Africa - metalware, textiles, muskets
-Africa to America - enslaved Africans (Middle Passage)
A. Cause:
-British expanding westward into French territory (Ohio River Valley)
-French built Fort Duquesne to hold claim
-British sent George Washington to evict the French
-was defeated - led to war
B. Who fought?
-British colonists vs. French colonists and Indians
-spread to Europe and other French/British colonies (Seven Years' War)

C. How did it end?
-Treaty of Paris 1763 - French gave up claims in North America
D. Pontiac's Rebellion
-rebellion by Indians to overthrow British and bring back the French
-Proclamation of 1763 - required settlers remain east of Appalachian Mountains
-upset colonists, who wanted to expand


E. Aftermath
-revealed tension between colonists and Britain
-Britain began to worry that the colonies would become too strong to control.
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