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European Exploration of the Americas - HMS
Transcript of European Exploration of the Americas - HMS
in 1539 near what is now Tampa.
Explored Florida, and continued
north ultimately being the first
European to see the Mississippi
River. Areas explored by de Soto A Brief Review of Pretransatlantic Europe
1. Ancient Greeks (mid-400s BCE-500 BCE) gave us the idea of democracy, specifically Athens, and this is an idea we want to 'earmark' for later units.
2. The Roman Republic (500 BCE-500 CE) gave us the ide of republic, another idea we will 'put a pin' in for later units.
3. The Middle Ages (500 CE-1500 CE) is where our story about exploration really begins...but not because of feudalism or anything, but because of the Crusades that occured during the Middle Ages.
The Crusades will do 2 things for Europe!
A. There will be a 'rebirth' or Renaissance in learning, as the educated peoples of the Middle East introduce new ideas from their region and from Asia.
B. There will be a growth in trade with Asia, which will eventually lead people in Europe to start wanting to know more about and explore the world around them.
4. The Renaissance (1300 CE-1600 CE) will reintroduce learning and knowledge to Europe, but there are 4 inventions that will specifically pave the way for the possibility of worldwide expansion.
the printing press
Now, the stories of how Europe explored and ultimately colonized the Americas. A Fairly Complete History of European Exploration Even though Europe lost the Crusades, it opened up major trade between Asia and Europe, and Arabic traders there controlled that trade, and made it less profitable and very dangerous. Therefore Europe needed a way to trade with Asia directly. 1st idea, go by land north of the Middle East.
But that was dangerous, it was cold, there were raiders, mountains, deserts, and odds are you'd die before you ever got to Asia, and by land it would take a very long time even if you did! 2nd idea, go around Africa by water.
This is a much better alternative to
the land route through Asia...but it is
still a long route to take. 2 Men made important voyages with regards to Africa. Bartolomeu Dias of Portugal, in 1487, was the first European to reach the southern tip of Africa, and he called it the Cape of Good Hope. In 1497, Vasco da Gama, also of Portugal, was the first European to sail around Africa and provided Portugal with a water route to Asia. Dias's voyage was the most important one, because now Europe knew just how big the continent of Africa was, and while that may be better than traveling through the Eurasian land-mass, there still needs to be a better solution. The Renaissance was a time of science, and science had so many effects on this period of exploration. Actually, exploration would not have happened if it were not for the science of the time. So, what were the scientific impacts? Prior to the Renaissance, people believed the world was the center of the universe...and most also thought the world was flat! During the Renaissance, people increasingly accepted the world was round and the sun was the center of the universe, but most importantly for this story, that the world was round? Breakthrough #1: Acceptance of a Round Planet & Heliocentric Universe! Breakthrough #2: Johannes Gutenberg's Movable Type Printing Press Gutenberg's printing press allowed for the easy reproduction of written text. Common people rediscovered reading and they increasingly were aware of the wonders of Asia and the opportunities of Europe. This invention is one of the handful of most important inventions in world history, along with probably the wheel and the microchip. Breakthroughs 3, 4, & 5: The Compass, the Astrolabe, and the Caravel With out these, transatlantic sea travel would have been difficult, if not impossible....unless your a viking! The Vikings were in fact, the first Europeans to explore the Americas, almost 500 years before Columbus! The vikings were expert sailors, who will settle Iceland and Greenland, and in 1000 CE, Lief Erikson will be blown off course and land on the North American coast in what is now Canada. They will name it Vinland, but they will only remain their a few years, as attacks by the Natives and distance from other settlements made it less than ideal. What is amazing about the Vikings is that they reached the Americas without the compass, astrolabe, or caravel, three things that it would seem essential to make that kind of voyage! The compass allowed for people to know precisely which direction they were going. The astrolabe allowed for sailors to know, identify, and mark locations using the stars...like an old-timie GPS. Finally, the caravel had a triangular shaped sail, allowing sailors to actually sail against the wind. This is important because wind usually blows west to east, but to get from Europe to the Americas you travel east to west. By the 1490's the stage was finally set for someone to have a different idea about how to get to Asia. If the world is round, why not sail west to get there. The new technology makes sailing in open water more reasonable...all it takes is one sailor, his crew, and one investor to fund that expedition. We all know who that man is... Columbus, as part of his agreement with Spain, claimed the land for them. Spain had the most powerful navy in the world at this time, and could stop other countries from exploring the 'New World.' Europeans contested Spain's claim to the New World, but the Spaniard Pope Alexander VI, issued a decree issuing a 'Line of Demarcation'. Spain claimed all land west of that line. And Spain's navy could easily back it up! Soon after, Portugal thought this unfair, and to avoid war, Spain and Portugal moved the line 800 miles west, giving Portugal some land. This is much of what is Brazil today, and why Brazil speaks Portuguese and not Spanish. Over the next 100 years, the Spanish would build an American empire. So, what was the basis for Spanish exploration? GOD!
GLORY! And so, the Spanish came! In 1501 Amerigo Vespucci realized that Columbus had not found Asia but a new place altogether, and took 4 voyages mapping out the coastlines of North and South America. It was because of this that the Americas were named for him! Juan Ponce de Leon explored Florida in 1513, looking for the legendary 'fountain of youth.' Amerigo Vespucci Juan Ponce de Leon Vasco de Balboa In 1513, Balboa traveled through the jungles of Panama and reached the Pacific Ocean, calling it the South Sea. Ferdinand Magellan From 1519-1522 Magellan and his crew were the first people to circumnavigate (sail around) the world. Even though Magellan died before competing the journey, his men finished and he is given credit for the accomplishment. 1519 was also about the time that the Spaniards started dealing with the large Mesoamerican and South American Empires that were restricting their conquest of this area.
Conquistadors was a general name given to Spanish explorers, but the key cognate is 'conquer'. They became conquerors of the natives who resided there for thousands of years!
The most famous of these 'conquering' conquistadors is Hernando Cortez. Hernado Cortes In 1519 Cortes struck perhaps the biggest blow against the American natives when he and a small group took down the entire Aztec army, possibly thousands of times bigger than their force.
How did they do this?
1. The Aztecs initially thought them as gods of some sort, and this gave them initial access to the area.
2. Rival tribes, particularly those in the Aztec Empire, were happy to help Cortes (big mistake on their part!).
3.Most importantly, the guns, armor, and other superior weapons gave them an unsurmountable advantage. Francisco Pizzaro In 1531 Pizzaro was able to conquer the Incan Empire and lay claim to for Spain to the southern tip of South America. Francisco Coronado In 1540 Coronado explored the American Southwest, conquering the Pueblo Indian groups, looking for the 7 Cities of Gold. The Results of Spanish Exploration There are 3 main results of the Spanish Exploration.
1. The Encomienda System
2. The Columbian Exchange.
3. The Transatlantic Slave Trade. The Encomienda System The economienda system was a system that rewarded Spanish settlers who came to the New World.
The Spanish had the right to tax natives or force them to work. In exchange they were supposed to protect the natives.
They could also 'convert' (forcibly) them to Catholicism.
In reality, the natives were treated as slaves, forced to work in the plantations in horrible conditions, and were exposed to horrible treatment.
Over time, the Natives died off and their numbers were not high enough to provide enough labor. Also, some were arguing it was not right to treat them that way...this is when Spain becomes interested in African slavery...more to come on that! de las Casas Bartolome de las Casas was the most famous opponent of the encomienda system. Watch the clip on him, and notice how he goes from not disagreeing with it to being a huge opponent of it over time! The Columbian Exchange was the transfer of plants, animals, and diseases between the Americas and Eurasia.
Look up to see those goods that are native to the Americas. Look to the right to see what goods came from Eurasia. None of these were in the other place until the period of exploration. Native Americans did not have horses or grains such as wheat...but Europe did not have things like corn or tobacco. Play 'is it native' on edmodo to see if you know where things are native from. Diseases were the worst thing that came over from Eurasia. Smallpox and many other diseases that the natives had no immunity for killed up to 80% of the population of the New World in what the natives called 'the Great Death'. The African Slave Trade As the natives died, the Spanish and later European colonists needed a source of labor for their plantations...cause they weren't about to do the work themselves. Natives had no immunities to their diseases nor did they know their farming methods. But...
Africans had built up immunities over their thousand years or so of contact with Europe.
Africans knew their farming methods because they were in many ways the same they used themselves.
Europe found the exact labor source that it needed! EUROPE The AMERICAS AFRICA The Middle Passage The Triangle trade was a system of trade between Europe, Africa, and the Americas...basically it sent trade goods to Africa, slaves to the Americas, and resources to Europe. Look at these maps. The Middle Passage was the trip that slaves made across the Atlantic Ocean...it took 2-3 months and people were squeezed into areas that measured 6 cubic feet to maximize profit. The conditions have been mentioned in some of our previous videos. Because of the Line of Demarcation, colonization of the Americas was restricted to the Spanish and the Portuguese. This, however, did not stop some explorers from other countries from coming here. Giovanni de Verazzano Verrazzano was an Italian sailing for the French crown, who in 1524 was the first European to explore the North American coast since the Vikings. He discovered New York Harbor (NYC). His real goal, though, was to take over the Northwest Passage. The first explorers to North America were seeking the Northwest Passage
The Northwest Passage was a fabled water way that passed through the North American continent. Europe believed in Columbus's rationale of traveling west to get to Asia, but the Americas were a whole continent in the way. The Northwest Passage would be a water route to get through the continent. At first, the explorers sought the Northwest Passage in what we now call the United States, but over time they reallized there was no water way there, or at least not one they could find. Eventually, they start to seek a way to go over the continent, but they would face the same problems as explorers would if trying to sail over Asia. Jacques Cartier In 1534 Cartier explored Canada, sailing along the St. Lawrence River as far inland as what is now Montreal. "The fur trade was one of the earliest and most important industries in North America. The fur trading industry played a major role in the development of the United States and Canada for more than 300 years."
Follow the link below to learn more about the fur trade in the New World.
http://www.pcmaf.org/fur_trade.htm Because of the fur trade, the French maintained a more positive relationship with Native Americans than the Spanish and other countries will. In fact their relationship with the Natives was almost a good one, and in the French and Indian War they will even ally against Britain. Father Jacques Marguette and Louis Joliet Marquette and Joliet discovered the Mississippi River in 1673 Robert La Salle In 1682 La Salled became the first European to sail the entire Mississippi River. In 1608 Champlain explored Quebec and claimed much of what is now Canada for France. He is known as the 'father of new France.' His main goal, however, was to set up fur trading posts. John Cabot Within 5 years of Columbus's discovery, the English had Cabot on his way to North America...his main interest was finding a Northwest Passage. Claiming land for England was not doable in 1497, but it soon will be. EVENTS IN EUROPE THAT WILL LEAD TO FURTHER EUROPEAN EXPLORATION
In 1517 a priest named Martin Luther launched the Protestant Reformation. His followers were called Protestants. Luther said the Catholic Church was too rich and abused its powers. The printing press helped spread Protestant ideas because large numbers of Bibles could be printed. More people could read the Bible on their own instead of depending on priests to explain it. (One major reason the first settlers come to the Americas was religious freedom.)
Often conflicts between Catholics and Protestants led to war. In the late 1500s French Catholics fought French Protestants known as Huguenots. Many Huguenots traveled to the Americas for religious freedom. In 1534 King Henry VIII established the Church of England, or Anglican Church. Henry declared himself head of this Protestant church. By breaking with the Catholic church, King Henry made himself the enemy of other European rulers who were Catholics.
King Philip II of Spain, a Catholic ruler, put together a large fleet called the Spanish Armada to defeat the Protestant nation of England. England had fewer ships, but they were quick. In July 1588 the English navy defeated the Armada. The defeat hurt the Spanish, whose economy was in trouble because of inflation. Inflation is a rise in prices caused by an increase in the amount of money in use. (The deterioration and defeat of the Spanish Navy in 1588 will allow for actual settlement of the New World by other European countries. The Spanish had settled very little of North America, so that is where the French, English, and Dutch will begin setting up colonies. Bear Gillis Travels the Northwest Passage Sir Francis Drake sailed at first for the English crown, and died a pirate, was the first Englishman to sail around the world in 1577. Nicknamed the 'Sea Dog', his first mission was to attack Spanish settlements in the New World. He continued sailing and eventually circumnavigated the globe. Henry Hudson In 1609 Henry Hudson also looking for the Northwest Passage stumbled on what would be called Hudson Bay. He thought he found the Passage...was just Hudson Bay. THE END! To conclude, look at the maps that show how the empires finally broke down around the year 1700 when the Age of Exploration was coming to an end.