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Copy of The Role of the Translator
Transcript of Copy of The Role of the Translator
and Sociology The focus is on the research that deals with the position and involvement of the translator and others involved in the translation process Introduction 1- The Cultural and Political Agenda of Translation What literary translators say about their practices and on recent discussion on the 'positionality' of the translator
Creativity: is a growing theme of translation.
Positionality: the positionality of the translator has also become more central in translation studies. 2- The Position and Positionality of the Literary Translator Deals with crucial aspects of the powerful publishing industry 3- The Power Network of the Publishing Industry 4- Discussion of Venuti's Work 5- The Reception and Reviewing of Translation Introduces recent and and increasingly important work on the sociology of translation, particularly incorporating the work of Pierre Bourdieu 6- The Sociology and Histography of Translation By: Emhemed Hamed 09-25-2012 The chapter is divided into two Parts:
1st: presents Venuti and Berman's Works.
2nd: examines other related areas and players. Part ONE a- Venuti and the "Invisibility" of the translator
Invisibility: here it refers to the translator’s situation and activity in contemporary American and British cultures. c- Berman’s "Negative Analytic" of Translation
The properly ethical aim of the translating act is receiving the foreign as foreign. This seems to agree with Venuti’s foreignization strategy, but he considers that there is a generally a system of textual deformation in the TTs that prevents the foreign from coming through. He calls that Negative Analytic. The scope of translation studies needs to be broadened to take account of the value-driven nature of the sociocultural framework. (Venuti) b- Domestication & Foreignization
•Domestication: the translator leaves the reader in peace, as much as possible, and moves the author toward him/her.
•Foreignization (also Minoritizing): the translator leaves the writer in peace, as much as possible and moves the reader toward the writer. The aim is to make the translator ‘visible’ and to make the reader realize they are reading a translation of a work from a foreign culture. * Note that domestication and foreignization are not binary opposites; rather, they are part of a continuum, and they relate to ethical choices made by the translator in order to expand the receiving culture’s range. See Ethical level vs. Discursive Level (p. 220-221) The 12 Deforming Tendencies:
1-Rationalization: the modification of syntactic structures.
2-Clarification: includes explicitation.
3-Expansion: TTs tend to be longer than the STs, which is due to the empty explicitation that unshapes its rhythm to overtranslation and to flattening.
4-Ennoblement: the translator tends to improve on the original by rewriting it in a more elegant style.
5-Qualitative Impoverishment: the replacement of words with TT equivalents that lack their richness.
6-Quantitative Impoverishment: loss of lexical variation in translation.
Literary translation is an economic activity. Publishers seek to minimize the cost of translation. And usually the editors are not fluent in the foreign language and the main concern for them is that the translation should read well in the TL. All this in addition to other agents, e.g. commissioners, revisers, etc., make the role of the translator seem to be weak in this complex network; this is described as Power Play. On page 230, Pym questions and discusses Venuti’s work as follows:
a-Will translation really change if translators refuse to translate fluently?
b-The trend toward a translation policy of fluency occurs in translations into other languages than English as well.
c-Pym sees the English-language book market as being much bigger than other languages.
d-Pym also asks if Venuti’s resistancy is testable.
Nevertheless, Pym concedes that Venuti does enable us to talk about translators as real people in political situations, and about ethical criteria that might relate translators to the societies of the future. However, Venuti does not offer a specific methodology to apply to the analysis of the translation. Reception, here, refers to the examination of how a work is received by readership.
Horizon of Expectation: used by Jauss (1982) to refer to the readers’ general expectations of the genre or series to which the new work belongs.
Paratexts: devices appended to the text as subordinate, but crucial in guiding the reading process. According to Genette, two kinds of paratexts exist:
a-Peritexts: appear in the same location as the text and are provided by the author or the publisher. Examples are: titles and subtitles.
b-Epitexts: any paratextual element not materially appended to the text within the same volume but circulating, as it were, freely, in a virtually limitless physical and social space. Examples are: reviews on the text which are written by others.
Synchronic Analysis: the examination of a range of reviews of a single work.
Diachronic Analysis: the examination of reviews of books of an author or newspaper over a longer time period. The focus has been recently placed on the study of translators rather than texts and cultures. Based on Pierre’s theory, the concepts of investigating the role of a translator as active agent are:
a- Field of social activity: translation and the participants including: author, commissioner, publisher, editor, translator, and reader.
b-Habitus: is the product of an individual history of the whole collective history of family and class.
c-Capital (Economic, Social, Cultural, and Symbolic)
d-Illusion: the cultural limits of awareness.
* Actor-network Theory: a theory that has been applied to technology and science. Part Two Case Study * Case Study: The study presented focuses on epitexts and peritexts of a single book in English translation, which was a collection of short stories published in Spanish. The reviews show a marked difference in the reception in the USA (positive), and the UK (negative) due to the role of the translators whether being visible or invisible. Questions? 7-The Destruction of Rhythms: in novels, rhythm can be destroyed by deformation of word order and punctuation.
8-The Destruction of Underlying Networks of Signification: the translator should be aware of the network of words that is formed throughout the text.
9-The Destruction of Linguistic Patternings: the translator’s adoption of a range of techniques standardizes the TT, which leads to incoherence.
10-The Destruction of Vernacular Networks or their Exoticization: relates to local speech and language patterns which play an important role in establishing the sitting of a novel.
11-The Destruction of Expressions and Idioms: replacing an idiom by an equivalent one in the TT is considered an attack of the discourse of the foreign work.
12-The Effacement of the Superimposition of Languages: the way translation tends to erase traces of different forms of language that co-exist in the ST, which is a central problem in the translation of novels.