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The Reformation

the reformation

caleb boucher

on 20 January 2012

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Transcript of The Reformation

Martine Luther Hanging up the 95 Theses VS. Crucifix
Good Deeds Unadorned Cross
Faith in God The Reformation Martin Luther Catherine De' Medici Desiderius Erasmus of
Rotterdam Martin Luther was the first and most important leader of the 16th century reformation. By the 16th century the Catholic church had become very corrupt and greedy. The church did many things to anger the people. They started to sell indulgences for money. Eventually people began to question the catholic church. Several people rose up against the catholic church, some of them protesting by making their own version of christianity. The protestant church had been created. The reformation became the beginning of a movement in Christianity known as Protestantism. by the end of the Reformation, many new christian churches had appeared in Europe. The religious unity the Catholic Church had created in Western Europe, and which had lasted for hundreds of years, had been broken. Ignatius of Loyola - Spaniard Theologian
- a soldier
- Dec. 24, 1491 to July 31, 1556
- Worked in the Catholic Church Henry IV Henry VIII Mary I Huguenots Jesuits John Wycliffe John Calvin John Huss (Jan Hus) Counter Reformation 30 Years War Protestant Church "Huguenot." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011. Web. 09 May. 2011. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/275000/Huguenot>. http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Image:Ignatius_Loyola.jpg Henry greatly strengthened the monarchy by employing many political innovations to outsmart the nobility. Henry ascended the throne in 1509 upon his father's death. Henry was excommunicated by the Pope in 1533. The Pope did this because of religious events. Amanda's Citations Beliefs Goals/Accomplishments Beliefs Goals/Accomplishments Goals/Accomplishments Beliefs Education Founded the Jesuits
Wrote Constitution of the Society of Jesus
Wrote Spiritual Exercises
Founded the Roman College (Gregorian UN.)
Made a home for woman and another for Jews Jesuits: a member of Jesus and a Roman Catholic order of religious men sju.edu These are huguenots that are suffering as attached Ignatius of Loyla is teaching to some Jesuits. Born in 1371 in Bohemia
Got a Masters Degree in 1396 from Charles University
Became a theology professor in 1398
He was ordained into Priesthood in 1400
Rector of Charles University in 1402
Got his bachelor's degree in theology in1404 Citations Anna's Citations Caleb's Citations Nate's Citations Joe's Citations http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/275000/Huguenot Beliefs This is Ignatius of Loyla. Goals/Acomplishments Beliefs & Theology Beliefs Goals/acomplishments Theology
Teaching/Spreading Relgion
Fights for what's right Beliefs Goals/Acomplishments Expanded groups, spreading into different countries
Increasing amount of Jesuits
Jesuits work, do good deeds
Produced preachers and catechists Wrote the 95 Thesese
Started the Protestant Church/Reformation
Made the Lutheran Religion
Questioned the Catholic Rule
Contradicted the Pope and several of his laws
"To the Christian Nobility of the German Nation
"Babylonian Captivity of the Church
The Freedom of a Christian
Invocating sermons Background Information His Story:
in battle, heeling he read about Christian Saints that told of brave deeds done for their faith. Then he, was fighting for Jesus Christ In 1305 the pope was moved from Rome to France.
In 1376 he returned back but died
French elected a French and Italian pope
There was then 2 ( actually later there were then 3) popes
So the third declined and they got rid of the other 2.
Elected a new pope Believed everyone should get the wine and bread during the Lord's Supper.
Popes should only be spiritual leaders, not rule the country
Selling indulgences "Martin Luther, Erasinus, Catherine De' Medici." New World Encyclopedia. N.p.,
30 Mar. 2011. Web. 10 May 2011. <http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/
entry/Info:Main_Page>. (What was going on During the time.) Belived that Faith not Works lead to redemption
Man must believe and serve God for redemption
"good work does not produce a good man but a good man does produce good work"
(The Freedom of a Christian)
Believed whatever the Bible could prove to be true
Jews were ungodly people Achievments Created Calvinism
Leader of Swiss protestant reformation
Was a Pastor in Strasbourg
Spent most of his time in Genevia reforming them and preaching there.
Wrote Sermons and Commentary on Books of the Bible Theology & Beliefs (1483-1546) (1466-1536) A humanist Leader and Writer
who helped Luther publish many Bibles and the 95 Thesese into the vernacular but controversy beliefs caused them to split. Human will and Gods grace work together to bring salvation
Humans can use reason to become better christians
Erasimus and his folowers were a "Third Church" other than Romanism and Lutheranism
Church offered means of redempiton Theology
Ignatius of Loyla
Working hard
Education Produced the first Greek New Testement
Wrote several novels on religion, stating and explaning the bible and his views
"Prais of folly"
"Preparation for death"
"The Handbook of a Christian Soldier: Predestination
Total Depravity of Man
Limted Atonement
Irresitible Grace
Perseverance of the Saints
The Bible is the source of Truth
Communion Brings You Closer to God
God's Power Huguenot:
Any of the Prodestants in France in the 16th & 17th centries that suffered for their faith Differs from the Catholic Church Good Works Vs. Faith in God "John Calvin." New World Encyclopedia. 29 Aug 2008, 13:27 UTC. 11 May 2011, 00:27 <http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/John_Calvin?oldid=794375>. "John Calvin." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011. Web. 10 May. 2011. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/90247/John-Calvin>. John Calvin John Huss Kiefer, James E. "John Huss, Priest and Martyr." Biographical Sketches of
Memorable Chrisitans of the Past. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 May 2011.
<http://justus.anglican.org/resources/bio/7.html>. Achievements Translated the first complete European Translation of the Bible from English done in 1,000 years.
Doctor of Theology
Head of Canterbury Hall in 1365
Summa Theologiae
Called the "Morning Star of Reformation" Suffer for faith
Agreed with John Calvin
Faith John Wycliffe "John Wycliffe, A Man Ahead of His Time." Wycliffe. Wycliffe Bible Translators,
n.d. Web. 10 May 2011. <http://www.wycliffe.org/About/OurHistory/
JohnWycliffe.aspx>. Hugenot Churchs formed
The Conspiracy of Amboise
Conflicts with Catholics cause eight civil wars The taking of Rouen from Hugenots

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

several meetins with Hugenot leaders to end controversies

Assassinations Theology & Beliefs Black Plague Started his Beliefs
Supersition was the foundation of the Catholic Church
Bible Should Be The head of the Church
Church Should Start out Poor Catherine sought to end many quarrels.

Arranged mairrages with her children to improve interests

Her main belief or goal was to stop the hugenots and improve the government "John Wycliffe." New World Encyclopedia. 29 Oct 2008, 20:08 UTC. 11 May 2011, 01:11 <http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/John_Wycliffe?oldid=841829>. http://laboringinthelord.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/06/john-wycliffe1.jpg nndb.com http://www.logosresourcepages.org/images/HussB1.gif Catherine De' Medichi was the queen of France to Henry II Catherine lived through many Kings and sought to improve the church and France http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_R_mZ_G7NXbM/TSHk4c7NJ_I/AAAAAAAAAMI/mGzcHzSJ0VQ/s1600/John-Calvin.jpg Beliefs That God had created societys as it was Society would not be changed or be challenged Women were interior to men That those who were born into poverty were there because that was the way God ordained it to be. Goals/Accomplishments King Henry VIII is famous for his six wives and his cruel behaviour towards them. Establishing the Church of England in 1534 and the Act of Supremacy Renewed warfare with France and Scotland in 1542 Henry IV of France was born in 1553 and died in 1610. Henry VI is considered one of the greatest kings of France and was important in ending the French Wars Of Religion. During the wars he was to going become the leading Huguenot after the deaths of Condé and Coligny. Beliefs "Henry VIII Accomplishments." thetudors.org.uk. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 May 2011.
<http://www.the-tudors.org.uk/henry-viii-accomplishments.htm>. He beleved in many different types of religion Henry IV also took an interest in the arts That he was born a Christian prince, not protestant, not Catholic but Christian Goals/Accomplishments Issued the Edict of Nanted giving religious freedom to Hugenots Encouraged Agriculture Built roads and canals Trueman, Chris. "Henry IV." historylearningsite.co.uk. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 May
2011. <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/H4.htm>. Mary I, daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, was born in 1516. Mary began her tumultuous reign at 37 years of age, arriving in London among a scene of great rejoicing. Following the disarray created by Edward VI's passing of the succession to Lady Jane Grey (Jane lasted only nine days), Mary's first act was to repeal the Protestant legislation of her brother, Edward VI, hurling England into a phase of severe religious persecution. Beliefs Believed in God and catholic religion She believed everyone should be catholic Mary I also believed it was fine ot burn people if they weren't catholic Goals/Accomplishments She had a very high amount of murders Became the Queen of England in 1553 Mary gave birth to her son who would eventually become the heir to the throne. Web link "History." britannia.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 May 2011.
<http://www.britannia.com/history/index.html>. http://geocachefanatic.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/06/mary1england1544_mid.jpg http://www.thehistoryblog.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/HenriIV.jpg Atkinson, Chris. "The Thirty Years' War." pipeline.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 May
2011. <http://www.pipeline.com/~cwa/TYWHome.htm>. "The counter reformation." Carrie.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 May 2011.
. "The Thirty Years' Wars 1618-1648 & 1733-1763." thecaveonline.com. N.p., n.d.
Web. 11 May 2011. Origins of Conflict The Peace of Augsburg of 1555 had brought a temporary truce in the religious connict in the German states. This settle-ment had recognized only Lutherans and Roman Catholics, but Cal-vinism had subsequently made gains in a number of states. The Calvinists began to demand recognition of their rights. The Thirty Years' War began, however, as a direct result of a conflict in the Hapsburg-ruled Kingdom of Bohemia. There were three important periods during the thirty years war and those were The Bohemian Period (1618-1625), The Danish Period (1625-1629), The Swedish Period (1630-1635), and the The French Period (1635- 1648) Time periods The Treaty of Prague The deaths of both Gustavus Adolphus and Wallenstein, together with the exhaustion of both the Holy Roman emperor and the German Protestant princes, brought an end to the Swedish period of the war. The Treaty of Prague, 1635 generally strengthened the Hapsburgs and weakened the power of the German princes. The Peace of Westphalia The Peace of Westphalia of 1648 ended the Thirty Years' War. Sweden acquired western Pomerania, Eastern Pomerania was assigned to Brandenburg. France annexed part of Alsace and some nearby territory.

The settlement formally recognized the independence of the Dutch Republic and Switzerland and granted the German states the right to make treaties and alliances, thereby further weakening the authority of the Holy Roman emperor.

In religious affairs, the Peace of Westphalia expanded the Peace of Augsburg to include Calvinists, as well as Catholics and Lutherans.

The Peace of Westphalia ended the Holy Roman emperor's hope of restoring both his own power and the Catholic faith throughout the empire. The empire was now fragmented into a number of virtually independent states. The end of the Thirty Years' War left Hapsburg Spain isolated. Although the war between France and Spain had continued until 1659, when the Treaty of the Pyrenees awarded France part of the Spanish Netherlands and some territory in northern Spain. King Philip IV of Spain agreed to the marriage of his daughter Maria Theresa to King Louis XIV (1643-1715) of France. Robins, Dale A. "— 40 — What is the difference between a Protestant church and a
Catholic church?" victorious.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 May 2011.
. What is the protestant church? The protestant church were those who didnnt believe in roman catholicismor eatern orthodoxy. Protestanism was one of the three major branches ofChristianity in te 16th century. The Followers of the Protestant Church A variety of protestant denominations grew out of the reformation. The
followers of Martin Luther established the evangelical churches of Europe
and Scandanavia. John Calvin and some other more radical reformers had
established a church in scottland. Another important branch of protestanism,
represented by the church or England, had its origin during the 16th century England and is now the Protestant denomination closest to Roman Catholicism in theology and worship. Theology being the study of questions about god. The doctrines of the protestant denominations vary considerably. but all emphasize the supremacy of the Bible in matters of faith and order, justification by grace through faith and not through works, and the priesthood of all believers. What was the Counter Reformation? A reform movement within the Roman Catholic Church that arose in 16th-century Europe in response to the Protestant Reformation. It was a movement within the Catholic Church to reform itself in the wake of the Protestant Reformation. The term of "Counter-Reformation" was still unknown in the 16th and 17th centuries and was invented later by non-Catholic historias to denote a Catholic reaction to the reformation.

The Counter Reformation is believed to have began from Pope Paul III (1534-1549) who authorized the Society of Jesus in 1540, established the Roman Inquisition in 1542, and initiated the Council of Trent in 1545, and then coninued until the bishop Sixtus V (1585-1590).

The Counter Reformation had a strong ally in Philip II who was the kind of Spain (1556-1598). It should not be forgotten tha the Counter Reformation brought about a genuine revival of Catholic Piety Three Important instruments to the Counter Reformation Countil of Trent, The Roman Inquisition, and the Society of Jesus "Counter-Reformation." Newworldencyclopedia.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 May 2011.
<http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Counter-Reformation>. Differences between protestant and catholic church Although both Protestants and Roman Catholics share the common ground of being founded upon faith in Jesus Christ, there are significant differences between the two groups. From general observation, one can see contrasts in everything from the way that their clergymen dress, to the way their services are conducted. Unlike most Protestant churches, Catholic masses are conducted in a liturgical fashion, with much emphasis upon symbols, rituals and ceremony.

This Bible reads very similar to Protestant translations, however with a major exception. The Catholic version contains the Apocrypha, a collection of seven complete books and a few additions to others. These are considered non-inspired writings written between the period of the Old and New Testaments. Harrison, Rachelle. "Protestant Reformation." depts.washington.edu. N.p., June
2000. Web. 11 May 2011. <http://depts.washington.edu/baltic/papers/
many outside sources "Jesuit." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011. Web. 09 May. 2011. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/302999/Jesuits>.

"Saint Ignatius of Loyla." New World Encyclopedia. N.p., 13 Apr. 2008. Web. 13
Apr. 2008. <http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/

OCTOBER 31, 1517

Out of love for the truth and the desire to bring it to light,
the following propositions will be discussed at Wittenberg,
under the presidency of the Reverend Father Martin Luther,
Master of Arts and of Sacred Theology, and Lecturer in
Ordinary on the same at that place. Wherefore he requests that
those who are unable to be present and debate orally with us,
may do so by letter.

In the Name our Lord Jesus Christ. Amen.

1. Our Lord and Master Jesus Christ, when He said Poenitentiam
agite, willed that the whole life of believers should be

2. This word cannot be understood to mean sacramental penance,
i.e., confession and satisfaction, which is administered by
the priests.

3. Yet it means not inward repentance only; nay, there is no
inward repentance which does not outwardly work divers
mortifications of the flesh.

4. The penalty [of sin], therefore, continues so long as
hatred of self continues; for this is the true inward
repentance, and continues until our entrance into the kingdom
of heaven.

5. The pope does not intend to remit, and cannot remit any
penalties other than those which he has imposed either by his
own authority or by that of the Canons.

6. The pope cannot remit any guilt, except by declaring that
it has been remitted by God and by assenting to God's
remission; though, to be sure, he may grant remission in cases
reserved to his judgment. If his right to grant remission in
such cases were despised, the guilt would remain entirely

7. God remits guilt to no one whom He does not, at the same
time, humble in all things and bring into subjection to His
vicar, the priest.

8. The penitential canons are imposed only on the living, and,
according to them, nothing should be imposed on the dying.

9. Therefore the Holy Spirit in the pope is kind to us,
because in his decrees he always makes exception of the
article of death and of necessity.

10. Ignorant and wicked are the doings of those priests who,
in the case of the dying, reserve canonical penances for

11. This changing of the canonical penalty to the penalty of
purgatory is quite evidently one of the tares that were sown
while the bishops slept.

12. In former times the canonical penalties were imposed not
after, but before absolution, as tests of true contrition.

13. The dying are freed by death from all penalties; they are
already dead to canonical rules, and have a right to be
released from them.

14. The imperfect health [of soul], that is to say, the
imperfect love, of the dying brings with it, of necessity,
great fear; and the smaller the love, the greater is the fear.

15. This fear and horror is sufficient of itself alone (to say
nothing of other things) to constitute the penalty of
purgatory, since it is very near to the horror of despair.

16. Hell, purgatory, and heaven seem to differ as do despair,
almost-despair, and the assurance of safety.

17. With souls in purgatory it seems necessary that horror
should grow less and love increase.

18. It seems unproved, either by reason or Scripture, that
they are outside the state of merit, that is to say, of
increasing love.

19. Again, it seems unproved that they, or at least that all
of them, are certain or assured of their own blessedness,
though we may be quite certain of it.

20. Therefore by "full remission of all penalties" the pope
means not actually "of all," but only of those imposed by

21. Therefore those preachers of indulgences are in error, who
say that by the pope's indulgences a man is freed from every
penalty, and saved;

22. Whereas he remits to souls in purgatory no penalty which,
according to the canons, they would have had to pay in this

23. If it is at all possible to grant to any one the remission
of all penalties whatsoever, it is certain that this remission
can be granted only to the most perfect, that is, to the very

24. It must needs be, therefore, that the greater part of the
people are deceived by that indiscriminate and highsounding
promise of release from penalty.

25. The power which the pope has, in a general way, over
purgatory, is just like the power which any bishop or curate
has, in a special way, within his own diocese or parish.

26. The pope does well when he grants remission to souls [in
purgatory], not by the power of the keys (which he does not
possess), but by way of intercession.

27. They preach man who say that so soon as the penny jingles
into the money-box, the soul flies out [of purgatory].

28. It is certain that when the penny jingles into the
money-box, gain and avarice can be increased, but the result
of the intercession of the Church is in the power of God

29. Who knows whether all the souls in purgatory wish to be
bought out of it, as in the legend of Sts. Severinus and

30. No one is sure that his own contrition is sincere; much
less that he has attained full remission.

31. Rare as is the man that is truly penitent, so rare is also
the man who truly buys indulgences, i.e., such men are most

32. They will be condemned eternally, together with their
teachers, who believe themselves sure of their salvation
because they have letters of pardon.

33. Men must be on their guard against those who say that the
pope's pardons are that inestimable gift of God by which man
is reconciled to Him;

34. For these "graces of pardon" concern only the penalties of
sacramental satisfaction, and these are appointed by man.

35. They preach no Christian doctrine who teach that
contrition is not necessary in those who intend to buy souls
out of purgatory or to buy confessionalia.

36. Every truly repentant Christian has a right to full
remission of penalty and guilt, even without letters of

37. Every true Christian, whether living or dead, has part in
all the blessings of Christ and the Church; and this is
granted him by God, even without letters of pardon.

38. Nevertheless, the remission and participation [in the
blessings of the Church] which are granted by the pope are in
no way to be despised, for they are, as I have said, the
declaration of divine remission.

39. It is most difficult, even for the very keenest
theologians, at one and the same time to commend to the people
the abundance of pardons and [the need of] true contrition.

40. True contrition seeks and loves penalties, but liberal
pardons only relax penalties and cause them to be hated, or at
least, furnish an occasion [for hating them].

41. Apostolic pardons are to be preached with caution, lest
the people may falsely think them preferable to other good
works of love.

42. Christians are to be taught that the pope does not intend
the buying of pardons to be compared in any way to works of

43. Christians are to be taught that he who gives to the poor
or lends to the needy does a better work than buying pardons;

44. Because love grows by works of love, and man becomes
better; but by pardons man does not grow better, only more
free from penalty.

45. Christians are to be taught that he who sees a man in
need, and passes him by, and gives [his money] for pardons,
purchases not the indulgences of the pope, but the indignation
of God.

46. Christians are to be taught that unless they have more
than they need, they are bound to keep back what is necessary
for their own families, and by no means to squander it on

47. Christians are to be taught that the buying of pardons is
a matter of free will, and not of commandment.

48. Christians are to be taught that the pope, in granting
pardons, needs, and therefore desires, their devout prayer for
him more than the money they bring.

49. Christians are to be taught that the pope's pardons are
useful, if they do not put their trust in them; but altogether
harmful, if through them they lose their fear of God.

50. Christians are to be taught that if the pope knew the
exactions of the pardon-preachers, he would rather that St.
Peter's church should go to ashes, than that it should be
built up with the skin, flesh and bones of his sheep.

51. Christians are to be taught that it would be the pope's
wish, as it is his duty, to give of his own money to very many
of those from whom certain hawkers of pardons cajole money,
even though the church of St. Peter might have to be sold.

52. The assurance of salvation by letters of pardon is vain,
even though the commissary, nay, even though the pope himself,
were to stake his soul upon it.

53. They are enemies of Christ and of the pope, who bid the
Word of God be altogether silent in some Churches, in order
that pardons may be preached in others.

54. Injury is done the Word of God when, in the same sermon,
an equal or a longer time is spent on pardons than on this

55. It must be the intention of the pope that if pardons,
which are a very small thing, are celebrated with one bell,
with single processions and ceremonies, then the Gospel, which
is the very greatest thing, should be preached with a hundred
bells, a hundred processions, a hundred ceremonies.

56. The "treasures of the Church," out of which the pope.
grants indulgences, are not sufficiently named or known among
the people of Christ.

57. That they are not temporal treasures is certainly evident,
for many of the vendors do not pour out such treasures so
easily, but only gather them.

58. Nor are they the merits of Christ and the Saints, for even
without the pope, these always work grace for the inner man,
and the cross, death, and hell for the outward man.

59. St. Lawrence said that the treasures of the Church were
the Church's poor, but he spoke according to the usage of the
word in his own time.

60. Without rashness we say that the keys of the Church, given
by Christ's merit, are that treasure;

61. For it is clear that for the remission of penalties and of
reserved cases, the power of the pope is of itself sufficient.

62. The true treasure of the Church is the Most Holy Gospel of
the glory and the grace of God.

63. But this treasure is naturally most odious, for it makes
the first to be last.

64. On the other hand, the treasure of indulgences is
naturally most acceptable, for it makes the last to be first.

65. Therefore the treasures of the Gospel are nets with which
they formerly were wont to fish for men of riches.

66. The treasures of the indulgences are nets with which they
now fish for the riches of men.

67. The indulgences which the preachers cry as the "greatest
graces" are known to be truly such, in so far as they promote

68. Yet they are in truth the very smallest graces compared
with the grace of God and the piety of the Cross.

69. Bishops and curates are bound to admit the commissaries of
apostolic pardons, with all reverence.

70. But still more are they bound to strain all their eyes and
attend with all their ears, lest these men preach their own
dreams instead of the commission of the pope.

71 . He who speaks against the truth of apostolic pardons, let
him be anathema and accursed!

72. But he who guards against the lust and license of the
pardon-preachers, let him be blessed!

73. The pope justly thunders against those who, by any art,
contrive the injury of the traffic in pardons.

74. But much more does he intend to thunder against those who
use the pretext of pardons to contrive the injury of holy love
and truth.

75. To think the papal pardons so great that they could
absolve a man even if he had committed an impossible sin and
violated the Mother of God -- this is madness.

76. We say, on the contrary, that the papal pardons are not
able to remove the very least of venial sins, so far as its
guilt is concerned.

77. It is said that even St. Peter, if he were now Pope, could
not bestow greater graces; this is blasphemy against St. Peter
and against the pope.

78. We say, on the contrary, that even the present pope, and
any pope at all, has greater graces at his disposal; to wit,
the Gospel, powers, gifts of healing, etc., as it is written
in I. Corinthians xii.

79. To say that the cross, emblazoned with the papal arms,
which is set up [by the preachers of indulgences], is of equal
worth with the Cross of Christ, is blasphemy.

80. The bishops, curates and theologians who allow such talk
to be spread among the people, will have an account to render.

81. This unbridled preaching of pardons makes it no easy
matter, even for learned men, to rescue the reverence due to
the pope from slander, or even from the shrewd questionings of
the laity.

82. To wit: -- "Why does not the pope empty purgatory, for the
sake of holy love and of the dire need of the souls that are
there, if he redeems an infinite number of souls for the sake
of miserable money with which to build a Church? The former
reasons would be most just; the latter is most trivial."

83. Again: -- "Why are mortuary and anniversary masses for the
dead continued, and why does he not return or permit the
withdrawal of the endowments founded on their behalf, since it
is wrong to pray for the redeemed?"

84. Again: -- "What is this new piety of God and the pope,
that for money they allow a man who is impious and their enemy
to buy out of purgatory the pious soul of a friend of God, and
do not rather, because of that pious and beloved soul's own
need, free it for pure love's sake?"

85. Again: -- "Why are the penitential canons long since in
actual fact and through disuse abrogated and dead, now
satisfied by the granting of indulgences, as though they were
still alive and in force?"

86. Again: -- "Why does not the pope, whose wealth is to-day
greater than the riches of the richest, build just this one
church of St. Peter with his own money, rather than with the
money of poor believers?"

87. Again: -- "What is it that the pope remits, and what
participation does he grant to those who, by perfect
contrition, have a right to full remission and participation?"

88. Again: -- "What greater blessing could come to the Church
than if the pope were to do a hundred times a day what he now
does once, and bestow on every believer these remissions and

89. "Since the pope, by his pardons, seeks the salvation of
souls rather than money, why does he suspend the indulgences
and pardons granted heretofore, since these have equal

90. To repress these arguments and scruples of the laity by
force alone, and not to resolve them by giving reasons, is to
expose the Church and the pope to the ridicule of their
enemies, and to make Christians unhappy.

91. If, therefore, pardons were preached according to the
spirit and mind of the pope, all these doubts would be readily
resolved; nay, they would not exist.

92. Away, then, with all those prophets who say to the people
of Christ, "Peace, peace," and there is no peace!

93. Blessed be all those prophets who say to the people of
Christ, "Cross, cross," and there is no cross!

94. Christians are to be exhorted that they be diligent in
following Christ, their Head, through penalties, deaths, and

95. And thus be confident of entering into heaven rather
through many tribulations, than through the assurance of
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