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Sudan and Kurdistans Fight for Independence
Transcript of Sudan and Kurdistans Fight for Independence
UN General Assembly, 1960, "Declaration of Colonial Countries." Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points Meanwhile in Iran..... Importance of Self-Determination 1.) All peoples have the right to self-determination by virtue of that right to self-determination; by virtue of that right they freely determine their political status and freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development.”
2.)Inadequacy of political, economic, social or educational preparedness should never serve as a pretext for delaying independence. Non-Turkish minorities within the Ottoman empire should be “assured of an absolute unmolested opportunity to autonomous development” On August 10, 1920 the Allies and Turkish government signed the Treaty of Sevres which provided local autonomy for the Kurds. "The right to self-determination is one of the most
awkward to define, since the abuse of that right could
jeopardize international peace and security in giving
states the impression that their territorial integrity was threatened." Hurst Hannum PROBLEMATIC Mustafa Anaturk
Implemented the Treaty of Lausanne I WILL NOT RECOGNIZE KURDS! ...Kurdish persecution??? NOT MY PROBLEM Reza Shah National unity and state stability have almost always taken priority over demands for self-determination. Kurdistan Historical Background Iraq League of Nations noted that the disputed territory was primarily Kurdish who lived separate from the Arabs. One of the commissions observations was:
"If one was to base oneself on ethnic arguments, one would have to conclude that the best solution would be to set up an independent Kurdish State, seeing as the Kurds account for five-eights of the population.” Ismet Sheriff, Kurdistan in Iraq
However the commission ultimately suggested that this area be attached to Iraq to ensure economic viability. Kurdistan Background Iran I heard you need help fighting
Iraq, Barzani. Now I am all for
helping Iraqi Kurds, as long as you allow me to continue persecuting mine. Turkish Kurdish Background Kurds??? OHHH you mean mountain Turks! Syria YAYY I stripped 100 000
Kurds of their citizenship!
Cheers for pan-Arabism Summary of Kurdish Background Iraq Iran Turkey Syria IRAQ/SYRIA Similarities Highly Arabicized Both struggled under an oppressive Ba'th regime Suffered under pan-Arabism Supported by Iranians
Experienced genoicide Ancient History Sudanese History Sudanese Demographics Ethnicity: Religion Sudanese Demographic Kurdish History Demographics of Kurdistan and Surrounding Areas - Iran -Iraq -Syria -Turkey Kurdistan Religion Even More Ethnicity More Ethnicity Ethnicity South Sudan Interdependence Liberal Theory Foreign interest leads to stability? Foreign Investment Concern for stability if there is economic investments in the region Interest in Oil Preventing the spread of Islamism Security Threats An Independent Sudan 1956 Independence
1965 Anya Nya & The Round-Table Conference
1969 Military Coup
1972 Addis Ababa Agreement
1973 The 1973 Constitution
1981 Military Government
1985 Transitional Government
2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement
2011 Independence Vote U.S Aid Clinton Era
Bipartisan Coalition (Sudan Caucus)
1989 Republican Congressman Frank Wolf
International Community- United Front Canadian Aid Canada's Aid Affective Agenda
Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada, Department of National Defense, Royal Canadian Mounted Police
Canadian Aid for Southern Sudan Independent Diplomat Diplomacy
Implementing Comprehensive Peace Agreement
International Engagement Iraq
From Barzani to Ba'th Barzani (Kurdish leader) Supported
By Iran and Turkey 1968 Ba'th party resumes power in Iraq made a constitutional settlement with Kurds. Clashes continued over oil revenue Soviet-Iraq Agreement 1972 1980 1958 Iran, US, Israel interested in reviving Kurdish/Iraq conflict in order to weaken Iraqi regime, although there was no real promise of granting autonomy to the Kurds.
In response Ba'th Regime passed a law that would give the region of Kurdistan autonomy and shall be regarded as a single admin unit "within the framework of the legal, political and economic unity of the Republic of Iraq." KDP (Kurdistan Democratic Party) rejected this. Iran-Iraq War Kurds used as proxy pawns on both sides Kurdish Population 38 Million Turkey
15.7- 25% IRAN
15-23% Azerbaijan 150 000-180 000
Israel 150 000
Lebanon 80 000
Russia 63 818
Turkmenistan 50 000
Armenia 42 139
Kazakhstan 38 325
Jordan 30 000
Georgia 20843 SYRIA
6-9% Important Events in Turkey Aug 20, 1920 Treaty of Sévres Signed 1920 1925-38 Treaty of Lausanne Signed 1923 1950 1965 Law NO. 1850 legalized "murders and other actions committed individually or collectively from the 20th of June 1930, to the 10th of December 1930 ...during the pursuir and extermnation of the revolts" in Kurdish areas Authoritarian rule over, Democratic Party created a new constitution that gave rights to Kurds Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP) established Realist Interpretation of Self-Determination Commonly oppose recognition of the right of self-determination, for the sake of peace. Realist, Lansing: "it is apparent that the assumption that self-determination is a right inherit to mankind is a menace to peace in the world, because it excites false hopes and produces political unrest that may develop into open resistance to established authority" Remedial Rights Only Theory: Allen Buchanan Asserts that a group has a general right to secede if and only it has suffered certain injustices, for which secession is the appropriate remedy of last resort. Avishai Margalit and Joseph Raz
National Self-Determination "any plausible conception of human well-being that goes beyond the satisfaction of biological needs must recognize the importance of culture which is actively created and enjoyed."
Culture requires political protection, and therefore we must recognize the right of cultural groups to govern themselves. Let's Take a Walk with Sudan Sudan under Colonial Rule 1956 Sudan becomes an independent state 1973 Constitution Comprehensive Peace Agreement 2005 British attempted to keep north and south separate. Encouraged missionaries in the south but made not progress in developing its infrastructure. Islamic based constitution established and north dealt forcefully with dissent in south Relative peace period, provided meaningful autonomy for the south. Ultimately failed however since Numeriri's attempt to Islamicize the south fostered a great deal of animosity toward the central government. 6 Year Period for the north to make a united sudan look attractive to the south International Communities Response to the South Sudan Problem? Post Cold War Never too enthusiastic, feared it was ethnically fractured, utterly lacking in institutions and had no viable political construct. Also it wasn't the only crisis in the region.
Throughout the 1970's-80's Sudan was largest recipient of foreign aid in Africa. They had fears of communist entrenchment in Ethiopia and were anti SPLA ( Sudan People's Liberation Army) given its socialist rhetoric. American support for north slackens, since they became increasingly Islamist. Communism was no longer the enemy, Islamism was. Osama's in Sudan? How states work around the definitions of self –determination Referendum • How is the international community going to protect minority rights? Inverse relationship •Stunting Self-determination impulses Granting autonomy In 1995 2/3rd of the population in scotland did not favor independence
In 1996 86% of the Corsican population was opposed to separation from France
Although Slovaks gained independence in the 1990’s only 8% of the population forced it. 1979 Spain grants autonomy to Basques and the separatist sentiments dripped from 36% to 12%
1990 Quebecois denied to be recognized as a “distinct society” within Canada, separatist sentiments rose from 20% to 50% •China does the same in the Mongolian Autonomous Regions
•Soviet Union did the same thing Conclusion The concept of self-determination as it relates as secession, in light of the Sudanese and Kurdish examples rests in the hands of sovereign states affected by the geopolitical atmosphere of the world. The international community does not act as collective actors persuing a goal towards world peace, but rather a collective body of opportunistic individual states influencing a nations struggle towards independence. John Nash's Equilibrium Theory: Do the Kurds, at least in northern Iraq, have the necessary qualifications to declare independency?